Take-Overs in Level 3 Automated Driving – Proposal of the Take-Over Performance Score (TOPS)

  • Jonas RadlmayrEmail author
  • Madeleine Ratter
  • Anna Feldhütter
  • Moritz Körber
  • Lorenz Prasch
  • Jonas Schmidtler
  • Yucheng Yang
  • Klaus Bengler
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 823)


Research on take-over performance in conditionally automated driving (Level 3) has led to many publications that analyze human performance and behavior in take-over situations. These are of utmost importance for the safety and comfort of Level 3 systems. Take-over performance is reported using metrics that can be divided into time aspects such as reaction times and quality aspects such as vehicle accelerations. While these metrics provide a very detailed reflection of take-over performance, a comparison between different studies remains challenging. We propose a novel way of combining the relevant metrics to facilitate an easier comparison between different experimental settings. For this purpose, the metrics are aggregated to a vehicle guidance parameter (VGP), a mental processing parameter (MPP) and a subjective rating parameter (SRP). We based the aggregation on published data and included correlation matrices per parameter. An initial standardization by range is necessary to allow the aggregation of the metrics leading to the VGP, MPP and SRP. The three resulting parameters integrate relevant metrics of take-over performance to allow for a quicker post-hoc understanding and a horizontal comparison of results from take-over experiments.


Conditionally automated driving Take-over performance 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonas Radlmayr
    • 1
    Email author
  • Madeleine Ratter
    • 1
  • Anna Feldhütter
    • 1
  • Moritz Körber
    • 1
  • Lorenz Prasch
    • 1
  • Jonas Schmidtler
    • 1
  • Yucheng Yang
    • 1
  • Klaus Bengler
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Ergonomics, Technical University of MunichGarchingGermany

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