A 3D Printed Thermal Manikin Head for Evaluating Helmets for Convective and Radiative Heat Loss

  • Shriram MukunthanEmail author
  • Jochen Vleugels
  • Toon Huysmans
  • Tiago Sotto Mayor
  • Guido De Bruyne
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 824)


Thermal performance of three bicycle helmets for radiative and convective heat loss was evaluated through heat loss experiments in a wind tunnel. A 3D printed thermal manikin head of a 50th percentile western male population was developed. Thermal performance of a helmet was quantified by comparing the manikin head heat losses with and without helmet. Experiments were performed for two air velocities: 1.6 m/s and 6 m/s. An infrared heat lamp positioned above the manikin simulated the effect of solar load. The results from the experiments showed a convective cooling efficiency between 89% and 96% for open helmets and between 78% and 83% for closed helmets. The radiative heat gain ranged from 3.5 W to 4.5 W for open helmets and 5 W to 8 W for closed helmets.


Heat transfer Convective heat loss Radiative heat gain Thermal manikin head Wind tunnel Helmet thermal performance 



We acknowledge the support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 645770”. Additionally, we also acknowledge the support from Flanders Innovation & Entrepreneurship (VLAIO) under grant agreement 140881 “Phyt: Physical and thermal comfort of helmets”.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shriram Mukunthan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jochen Vleugels
    • 1
  • Toon Huysmans
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tiago Sotto Mayor
    • 4
  • Guido De Bruyne
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Product Development, Faculty of Design SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Vision Lab, Department of PhysicsUniversity of Antwerp (CDE)AntwerpBelgium
  3. 3.Applied Ergonomics and Design, Department of Industrial DesignDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  4. 4.SIMTECH Laboratory, Transport Phenomena Research Centre, Engineering Faculty of Porto UniversityPortoPortugal
  5. 5.Lazer Sport NVAntwerpBelgium

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