Application of the Equid Methodology and the Principles of Macro Ergonomics in Seat Design

  • Cristiane Nonemacher CanteleEmail author
  • Giovanna Nonemacher
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 824)


It is known that the main concept of Ergonomics consists in the understanding of the adaptation of the jobs and the needs of its users. When it comes to seating we should also consider several topics, this adaptation is of fundamental importance for the perception of comfort of users in relation to their jobs. A Brazilian company located in the south of the country developed a study whose main theme contemplated the application of tools linked to ergonomics through concepts that aimed to design a seat that would meet the functional needs of its users, as well as to understand market action and commercial viability, and also of their interaction in corporate environments. Therefore, this paper aims to demonstrate the application of macro ergonomics concepts and the Equid/2008 tool in the design and production of seat and, as specific objectives, the demonstration of commercial needs and the respective users with the multidisciplinary team involved as well as evidencing the final result of the product and its respective relevance in the national and international market. Methodologically semi-qualitative questionnaires based on the precepts of the tool and macro ergonomics concepts were applied in all stages of the process, involving development team, process and manufacturing, commercialization and users. It was concluded that the Equid tool and Macro Ergonomics concepts have proven effective in the design and definition of the ergonomic and functional characteristics of the product. Besides that, they are fundamental to list the functional needs of the product and the team of workers involved in its manufacture.


Ergonomics Macro ergonomics Product ergonomics 


  1. Abrantes AF (2001) Ergonomics in the office environment. Technical article. Accessed 10 Feb 2018
  2. In Vink P (2005) Comfort and design-principles and good practice. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  3. Bcheche IC, Costa HFA, Azevedo, AC (2013) Ergonomics of conception: a strategy of marketing for the valorization of products. Int J Contemp Stud Nova Serrana, set/dez 33–41 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. Bins Ely VH, Turkienicz B (2005) Attribute grid method: evaluating the relationship between user and environment. Built Environ 5(2)Google Scholar
  5. Bins Ely VH (2003) Ergonomics + Architecture: seeking a better performance of the physical environment. In: Annals of the 3 international congress of ergonomics and usability of human interfaces - technology: products, programs, information, built environment- ERGODESIGN. LEUI/PUCRIO, Rido de Janeiro (2003)Google Scholar
  6. Brandao E (2017) Laboratory of ergonomics and usability of interfaces in human-technology system. Accessed 15 Nov 2017
  7. Brazil Ergonomics V (1999) Latin American congress of ergonomics. In: IX Brazilian congress of ergonomics. III seminary of ergonomics of Bahia. ABERGO, SalvadorGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruder D et al (2015) Affective design and EQUID: emotional and ergonomic quality in product design and development. In: Proceedings 19th triennial congress of the IEA, Melbourne, 9–14 August 2015Google Scholar
  9. Cámara JJD, Vaz CS (1999) Design vs ergonomics: considerations about the practice of ergonomics by professionals from design schools. Ergon Action 1(2):72 III Seminary of Ergonomics of Bahia. ABERGO, 1999Google Scholar
  10. Design Process Guidelines Equid (2008) International ergonomic assessment equid (ergonomic quality in design) Technical Committee All rights reserved. Copyright 2008 by IEAGoogle Scholar
  11. Diniz R et al in Barbosa, Rengel, Raposo (orgs) (2013) Ergonomics design usabili-dade interaction. ERGODESIGN/UFJF, Juiz de Fora, 183 pGoogle Scholar
  12. Ettinger K (1964) Direction and productivity. Direction, organization and business administration. Teaching manual 1. IBRASA , São PauloGoogle Scholar
  13. Fogliatto F, Guimarães LBM (1999a) Macroergonomic design: a methodological proposal for product design. Textbook, Product & Production. Porto AlegreGoogle Scholar
  14. Fogliatto F, Guimarães LBM (1999b) Macroergonomic design: a methodological proposal for product design. Product & production. Textbook, Porto Alegre. PortoGoogle Scholar
  15. García-Acosta G, Lange-Morales K, Puentes-Lagos DE (2011) In addition, the results of this study are summarized in Table 1. In: Karwowski W, Soares M, Stanton N (eds) Addressing human factors and ergonomics in design process, product life cycle, and innovation: trends in consumer product design. Handbook of human factors and ergonomics in consumer product design: methods and techniques, Chap 9. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp 133–154Google Scholar
  16. Graf M et al (1995) An assessment of seated activity and postures at five workplaces. Int J Ind Ergon 15:81–90. In Vink P (2005) Comfort and design-principles and good practice. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  17. Guérin LV et al (2001) Understand the work to transform it. Translation: Giliane M. J. Ingratta, Marco Maffei. Edgar Blucher, São Paulo, 200 p. Original title: Comprendre le travail pour le transformer la pratique de l’ergonomieGoogle Scholar
  18. Guimarães LBM (org.) (2010a) Macroergonomics: putting concepts into practice. In Ergonomic monographic series c.1. FEENG/UFRGS, Porto AlegreGoogle Scholar
  19. Guimarães LBM (2010b) Historic. Environment. In. Process ergonomics, vol 1, 5 edn. FEENG/UFRGS, Porto AlegreGoogle Scholar
  20. Guimarães BMLIA (2006) Ergonomics of process I, 5th edn. FEENG/UFRGS/EE/PPGEP, Porto Alegre, p 436Google Scholar
  21. Guimarães LBM, Fogliato FS. Macroergonomic design. I Meeting AfricaGoogle Scholar
  22. Haines H et al (2002) Validating the framework for participatory ergonomic. Ergonomics, E.A.P.Google Scholar
  23. Hales TR, Bernard BP (1996) Epidemiology of work related mmusculoskeletal disorders. Ortop Clin North Am 27:679–709. In Vink P (2005) Comfort and design-principles and good practice. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  24. Ida I (2005) Ergonomics - design and production, 2nd edn. Edgard Blücher, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  25. International Standard Book Number 978-0-9976041-0-8. IEA - design process requirements EQUID 1/10Google Scholar
  26. Ios N, Imada AS (1998) The macroergonomic approach to produce design. In Vink P (2005) Comfort and design-principles and good practice. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  27. Karwowski W (2001) Physical tasks: analysis, design and operation. In: Salvendy G (ed) Handbook of industrial engineering, 3 edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Kmita S, Pastre T, Guimaraes L (2002) Ecodesign, design for assembly (DFA) and ergonomics as tools for product design. In: Latin American Congress of Ergonomics, 7. Brazilian Congress of Ergonomics, 12. Brazilian Seminar on Integral Accessibility, Recife. Anais …. ABERGO, RecifeGoogle Scholar
  29. Kroemer KHE, Grandjean E (2005) Manual of ergonomics: adapting the work to the man. Translation by Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimarães, 5 edn. Bookman, Porto AlegreGoogle Scholar
  30. Lange-Morales K, García-Acosta G, Bruder R (2014) The EQUID approach: improving ergonomics quality in product design and development. In: Ahram T, Karwowski W, Marek T (eds) Proceedings of the 5th international conference on applied human factors and ergonomics, AHFE 2014, Kraków, Poland, 19–23 July 2014Google Scholar
  31. Moraes A (2003) Ergonomics and product design, information, man-computer interaction interfaces and architectural spaces: teaching and research. ENEGEPGoogle Scholar
  32. Noro K (1999) Participatoy ergonomics. In: Karwowski W, Marras WS (eds) The occupational ergonomic handbook. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  33. Pequini SM (2005) Ergonomics applied to product design: a case study on bicycle design. Origins and conceptualization of ergonomics. FAU-USPGoogle Scholar
  34. Requirements for the management of ergonomic quality in the design process of products and services Version 2.0 technical committee EQUID (ergonomic quality in design). International association of ergonomics. All rights reserved. Copyright 2008 by IEA. Published by IEA PressGoogle Scholar
  35. Smulders PGW et al (2002) Trends in work. In Vink P (2005) Comfort and design-principles and good practice. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  36. Vink P (2005) Comfort and design-principles and good practice. CRC Press Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  37. Vink P (2002) Comfort. Inaugural address, Faculty of Design, Construction and Production, Delft University of Technology, June 2002Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristiane Nonemacher Cantele
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giovanna Nonemacher
    • 2
  1. 1.Cavaletti Professional Seating SAErechimBrazil
  2. 2.ImedPasso FundoBrazil

Personalised recommendations