How to Assess Sitting (Dis)comfort? – An Analysis of Current Measurement Methods and Scales

  • Annika UlherrEmail author
  • Klaus Bengler
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 826)


For at least 60 years, the research community of human factors and ergonomics investigates the topic of comfortable and optimized seating. Great amounts of scientific publications address the evaluation and often the objectification of the positive as well as negative sensations during sitting. The terms of comfort and discomforts are usually applied to determine the subjective feelings, regardless whether it is for aircraft, automotive or office seating. The great variety of scales being used and experiment designs are considered critical regarding the comparability of published results. After presenting the current state of the art, parameters affecting discomfort evaluations and a meta-analysis of already published studies are introduced. On these bases, the paper concludes with arguments for the necessity of more standardization in the area of sitting research, future research goals as well as important questions to be answered and discussed within the research community of sitting comfort/discomfort.


Comfort Discomfort Assessment Scales Sitting 



The presented work was neither government-funded nor commissioned by any industrial stakeholder. The used data set was collected within the project UDASim, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair of ErgonomicsTechnical University of MunichGarchingGermany

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