Adventure and Personal and Social Development

  • Simon Beames
  • Chris Mackie
  • Matthew Atencio


After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
  • Articulate the historical roots of programmes that use adventure to elicit personal and social development (PSD) within their participants

  • Understand the philosophical foundations of character education, and its relation to programmes with similar labels

  • Explain key conceptual features of programmes that use adventure as a tool for personal growth

  • Understand the distinction between adventure therapy and other forms of adventure-based PSD

Key Reading

  1. Brookes, A. (2003). A critique of neo-Hahnian outdoor education theory. Part one: Challenges to the concept of ‘character building’. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 3(1), 49–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Beames
    • 1
  • Chris Mackie
    • 2
  • Matthew Atencio
    • 3
  1. 1.University of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  2. 2.University of the Highlands and IslandsInvernessUK
  3. 3.California State University East BayHaywardUSA

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