Animal Models of Venous Stroke
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) involves thrombosis of the veins and sinuses of the brain, most commonly the superior sagittal sinus. Although incidence of CVT is relatively low (it accounts for only 0.5% of all strokes), CVT is a significant cause of stroke in young patients. CVT can produce partial venous occlusion obstructing venous drainage, increasing venous pressure and consequently leading to edema and hemorrhage. Despite intensive research the pathophysiological progress of CVT is poorly understood and further investigation, for all development of new reliable animal models able to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapeutic approaches, are urgently needed. The ideal model should comprise simultaneously inducted cortical venous thrombosis, infarct and hemorrhage with consecutive relevant neurological deficits mimicking the pathophysiologic changings induced CVT in humans and allowing testing of therapeutic strategies. In contrast to arterial stroke, currently there are only a few animal models of CVT. The existing models employ either an injection of thrombogenic substances or a ligation of the sinus or cortical veins. In this chapter we will address the evolution of animal models of CVT and discuss their limitations.
KeywordsCerebral veins Animal models
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