Advertisement

Role of Cerebral Venous System in Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Yan Qu
  • Lei Zhao
  • Hao Guo
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR)

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most prevalent causes of neurological dysfunction, leading to substantial economic and social burdens worldwide. The brain edema, including cytotoxic and vascular brain edema, is one of the most important hallmarks of TBI. Brain edema induces an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), resulting in decreased cerebral vascular perfusion and cerebral ischemia. In recent years, studies have suggested that the balance between the arterial blood inflow and venous output is crucial for brain homeostasis. However, the role of cerebral venous system in vascular brain edema has always been overlooked and remains unclear. In this chapter, we are going to discuss about the role of cerebral venous system in TBI and provide some theoretical evidence for the clinical management of TBI.

Keywords

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Cerebral venous system Brain edema 

References

  1. 1.
    Ghajar J. Traumatic brain injury. Lancet. 2000;356(9233):923–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Faul M, Xu L, Wald M, Coronado V, Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stein SC, Georgoff P, Meghan S, Mirza KL, El Falaky OM. Relationship of aggressive monitoring and treatment to improved outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2010;112(5):1105–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lu J, Marmarou A, Choi S, Maas A, Murray G, Steyerberg EW, Impact and Abic Study Group. Mortality from traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;95:281–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang JH, Badaut J, Tang J, Obenaus A, Hartman R, Pearce WJ. The vascular neural network—a new paradigm in stroke pathophysiology. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012;8(12):711–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barami K. Cerebral venous overdrainage: an under-recognized complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Neurosurg Focus. 2016;41(3):E9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kilic T, Akakin A. Anatomy of cerebral veins and sinuses. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2008;23:4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chen S, Chen Y, Xu L, Matei N, Tang J, Feng H, Zhang JH. Venous system in acute brain injury: Mechanisms of pathophysiological change and function. Exp Neurol. 2015;272:4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Plesnila N, Friedrich D, Eriskat J, Baethmann A, Stoffel M. Relative cerebral blood flow during the secondary expansion of a cortical lesion in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2003;345(2):85–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schwarzmaier SM, Kim SW, Trabold R, Plesnila N. Temporal profile of thrombogenesis in the cerebral microcirculation after traumatic brain injury in mice. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27(1):121–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pomschar A, Koerte I, Lee S, Laubender RP, Straube A, Heinen F, Ertl-Wagner B, Alperin N. MRI evidence for altered venous drainage and intracranial compliance in mild traumatic brain injury. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e55447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maxwell WL, Whitfield PC, Suzen B, Graham DI, Adams JH, Watt C, Gennarelli TA. The cerebrovascular response to experimental lateral head acceleration. Acta Neuropathol. 1992;84(3):289–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doshi H, Wiseman N, Liu J, Wang W, Welch RD, O’Neil BJ, Zuk C, Wang X, Mika V, Szaflarski JP, Haacke EM, Kou Z. Cerebral hemodynamic changes of mild traumatic brain injury at the acute stage. PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0118061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shen Y, Kou Z, Kreipke CW, Petrov T, Hu J, Haacke EM. In vivo measurement of tissue damage, oxygen saturation changes and blood flow changes after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats using susceptibility weighted imaging. Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;25(2):219–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bailey DM, Jones DW, Sinnott A, Brugniaux JV, New KJ, Hodson D, Marley CJ, Smirl JD, Ogoh S, Ainslie PN. Impaired cerebral haemodynamic function associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in professional boxers. Clin Sci. 2013;124(3):177–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stevens RD, Shoykhet M, Cadena R. Emergency neurological life support: intracranial hypertension and herniation. Neurocrit Care. 2015;23(Suppl 2):S76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Alperin N, Lee SH, Sivaramakrishnan A, Hushek SG. Quantifying the effect of posture on intracranial physiology in humans by MRI flow studies. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2005;22(5):591–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frattalone AR, Ling GS. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury: pathophysiology and management. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2013;24(3):309–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ng I, Lim J, Wong HB. Effects of head posture on cerebral hemodynamics: its influences on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and cerebral oxygenation. Neurosurgery. 2004;54(3):593–7; discussion 598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Qu
    • 1
  • Lei Zhao
    • 1
  • Hao Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryTangdu Hospital, PLA Air Force Medical UniversityXianChina

Personalised recommendations