• Hossam A. Kishawy
  • Ali Hosseini
Part of the Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology book series (MFMT)


The term “superalloys” refers to a group of alloys that are capable of maintaining their mechanical characteristics after prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures. This category of material was primarily developed for applications such as turbo-superchargers and aircraft turbine engines. However, their applications have been expanded over the time to many other industrial sectors such as gas turbines, rocket engines, petroleum refineries, and chemical plants. From composition standpoint, among all of the metallic alloys ever developed for industrial, commercial, and military applications, superalloys are one of the most complex ones. This complexity enables metallurgists to develop different alloys and tailor their characteristics for wide range of applications. In addition to their modifiable features, the growing demand of industry for heat-resistant materials has further boosted superalloys development to the present level of sophistication. This chapter provides the readers with a brief review of superalloys, history of evolution, and their current industrial applications. It also presents the opportunities and challenges that may raise during machining superalloys. Applicable cutting tools, manufacturing processes, and other influential parameters on the machining and machinability of superalloys will also be discussed in this chapter.


  1. 1.
    Reed RC. The superalloys: fundamentals and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hawk C. Wide gap braze repairs of nickel superalloy gas turbine components. USA: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Donachie MJ, Donachie SJ. Superalloys: A Technical Guide. Ohio: ASM International; 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Satyanarayana D, Prasad NE. Nickel-based superalloys. Aerospace materials and material technologies. New York: Springer; 2017. p. 199–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hawk C. Wide gap braze repairs of nickel superalloy gas turbine components. Colorado: Colorado School of Mines, Arthur Lakes Library; 2016.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Durand-Charre M. The microstructure of superalloys. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sims CT. A history of superalloy metallurgy for superalloy metallurgists. Superalloys. 1984;1984:399–419.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geddes B, Leon H, Huang X. Superalloys: alloying and performance. Ohio: Asm International; 2010.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sims CT. Superalloys: genesis and character. Superalloys II–high temperature materials for aerospace and industrial power. New Jersey: Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley and Sons; 1987. p. 3–26.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Demmons AC. Superalloy Metallurgy a Gleeble Study of environmental fracture in Inconel 601. San Luis Obispo: California Polytechnic State University; 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pickering F. Metallurgical evolution of stainless steels; 1979.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diltemiz SF, Zhang S. 1 Superalloys for super jobs. Aerospace materials handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2012. p. 1–76.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holt RT, Wallace W. Impurities and trace elements in nickel-base superalloys. Int Met Rev. 1976;21(1):1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kracke A, Allvac A. Superalloys, the most successful alloy system of modern times‐past, present, and future. Superalloy 718 Deriv. 1976;718:13–50.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Poole J, Fischer J, Hack G. The development, performance and future of the mechanical alloying process and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys. Advances in high temperature structural materials and protective coatings (A 96–14291 02–23). Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada; 1994. p. 32–53.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coatings N.R.C.C.o., High-temperature oxidation-resistant coatings: coatings for protection from oxidation of superalloys, refractory metals, and graphite. National Academies; 1970.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goward G. Protective coatings for high temperature alloys state of technology. In: Proceedings of the symposium on properties of high temperature alloys with emphasis on environmental effects, vol. 77–1. 1976.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nicholls J. Designing oxidation-resistant coatings. JoM. 2000;52(1):28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu R, Yao MX. High-performance wear/corrosion-resistant superalloys. In: Aerospace Materials Handbook; 2012. p. 151.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Lacalle NL, Mentxaka AL. Machine tools for high performance machining. Springer Science and Business Media; 2008.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moniz B. Metallurgy, American Technical Publishers; 1994Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Committee A. Asm handbook, volume 01-properties and selection: irons, steels, and high-performance alloys. ASM International.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raza SS. Superalloys: an introduction with thermal analysis. J Fundam Appl Sci. 2015;7(3):364–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sharpe HJ. Effect of microstructure on high-temperature mechanical behavior of nickel-base superalloys for turbine disc applications. Georgia Institute of Technology; 2007Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sharpe HJ, Saxena A. Effect of microstructure on high-temperature mechanical behavior of nickel-base superalloys for turbine disc applications. In: Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publ; 2011Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kushan MC, Uzgur SC, Uzunonat Y, Diltemiz F. Allvac 718 plus™ superalloy for aircraft engine applications. In: Recent Advances in Aircraft Technology. InTech; 2012Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davis JR. Nickel, Cobalt, and Their Alloys. ASM international; 2000.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Suzuki A, Pollock TM. High-temperature strength and deformation of Γ/Γ′ two-phase Co–Al–W-base alloys. Acta Mater. 2008;56(6):1288–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Akca E, Gürsel A. A review on superalloys and In718 nickel-based inconel superalloy. Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences (PEN), 2015; 3(1)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hosford WF. Physical metallurgy. Taylor & Francis; 2005Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pollock TM, Tin S. Nickel-based superalloys for advanced turbine engines: chemistry, microstructure and properties. J Propul Power. 2006;22(2):361–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brandt DA, Warner J. Metallurgy fundamentals. Publisher: The Goodheart-Willcox Company. Inc.; 1985.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sims C, Stoloff N, Hagel WC. Superalloys Ii: high temperature materials for aerospace and industrial power. NY: Wiley; 1987.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ezugwu E. Key improvements in the machining of difficult-to-cut aerospace superalloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf. 2005;45(12):1353–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tools S. Turning difficult-to-machine alloys. Technical Guide; 2002. p. 21.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Henderson M, Arrell D, Larsson R, Heobel M, Marchant G. Nickel based superalloy welding practices for industrial gas turbine applications. Sci Technol Weld Joining. 2004;9(1):13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Handbook AF. Faa-H-8083-3a. US Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration; 2004. p. 1-33.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jovanović MT, Lukić B, Mišković Z, Bobić I, Cvijović I, Dimčić B. Processing and some applications of nickel. Cobalt Titanium-Based Alloys. Metalurgija. 2007;13(2):91–106.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Opris C, Liu R, Yao M, Wu X. Development of stellite alloy composites with sintering/hiping technique for wear-resistant applications. Mater Des. 2007;28(2):581–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smith R, Lewi G, Yates D. Development and application of nickel alloys in aerospace engineering. Aircr Eng Aerosp Technol. 2001;73(2):138–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bowman R. Superalloys: a primer and history. In 9th International Symposium on superalloys; 2000.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guedou J, Lautridou J, Honnorat Y. N18, Powder metallurgy superalloy for disks: development and applications. J Mater Eng Perform. 1993;2(4):551–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ezugwu E, Bonney J, Yamane Y. An overview of the machinability of aeroengine alloys. J Mater Process Technol. 2003;134(2):233–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sims CT, Hagel W. The Superalloys. Wiley; 1972. 66: p. 1221–1229.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    del Prete A, Franchi R, Mariano E. Nickel superalloy components surface integrity control through numerical optimization. In Key Eng Mat. Trans Tech Publ; 2014Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Komanduri R, Schroeder T. On shear instability in machining a nickel–iron base superalloy. J Eng Indust. 1986;108(2):93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rastani M. Mechanism of slip and twinning; 1992.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Callister WD, Rethwisch DG. Materials science and engineering: an introduction, 9th ed. Wiley; 2013Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Choudhury I, El-Baradie M. Machinability of nickel–base super alloys: a general review. J Mat Process Technol. 1998;77(1):278–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Li H, Chen X, Zhang S. Zhao D. Tool condition monitoring in machining superalloys. In: Aerospace Materials Handbook. CRC Press; 2012. pp. 77–108.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Palakudtewar RK, Gaikwad SV. Dry machining of superalloys: difficulties and remediesGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ulutan D, Ozel T. Machining induced surface integrity in titanium and nickel alloys: a review. Int J Mach Tools Manuf. 2011;51(3):250–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dieter GE, Bacon DJ. Mechanical metallurgy. vol. 3. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1986Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hou ZB, Komanduri R. Modeling of thermomechanical shear instability in machining. Int J Mech Sci. 1997;39(11):1273–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pawade R, Joshi SS. Mechanism of chip formation in high-speed turning of Inconel 718. Mach Sci Technol. 2011;15(1):132–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Komanduri R, Brown R. On the mechanics of chip segmentation in machining. J Eng Indust. 1981;103(1):33–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lemaire J, Backofen W. Adiabatic instability in the orthogonal cutting of steel. Metall Trans. 1972;3(2):481–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shaw M, Vyas A. Chip formation in the machining of hardened steel. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol. 1993;42(1):29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zhu D, Zhang X, Ding H. Tool wear characteristics in machining of nickel-based superalloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf. 2013;64:60–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Altin A, Nalbant M, Taskesen A. The effects of cutting speed on tool wear and tool life when machining Inconel 718 with ceramic tools. Mater Des. 2007;28(9):2518–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arunachalam R, Mannan M. Machinability of nickel-based high temperature alloys. Mach Sci Technol. 2000;4(1):127–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ezugwu E, Bonney J, Fadare D, Sales W. Machining of nickel-base, Inconel 718, alloy with ceramic tools under finishing conditions with various coolant supply pressures. J Mater Process Technol. 2005;162:609–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ezugwu E, Machado A, Pashby I, Wallbank J. The effect of high-pressure coolant supply when machining a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. Lubr Eng. 1991;47(9):751–7.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brandt G, Olsson B. Metal powder report conference. Switzerland: Luzern; 1983.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Campbell Jr FC. Manufacturing technology for aerospace structural materials. Elsevier; 2011Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wright P, Chow J. Deformation characteristics of nickel alloys during machining. J Eng Mater Technol. 1982;104(2):85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chen Y, Liao Y. Study on wear mechanisms in drilling of Inconel 718 superalloy. J Mater Process Technol. 2003;140(1):269–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Colak O. Investigation on machining performance of Inconel 718 in high pressure cooling conditions. Strojniški vestnik-J Mech Eng. 2012;58(11):683–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ezugwu E, Bonney J. Effect of high-pressure coolant supply when machining nickel-base, Inconel 718, alloy with coated carbide tools. J Mater Process Technol. 2004;153:1045–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hossam A. Kishawy
    • 1
  • Ali Hosseini
    • 1
  1. 1.Machining Research Laboratory (MRL)University of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada

Personalised recommendations