Advertisement

Stereoisomeric Dipeptide Prodrug Approach for Retina and Posterior Segment Disease

  • Shrushti Patil
  • Nandish Pathak
  • Yashwant V. Pathak
Chapter

Abstract

Stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrug approach has overcome the barriers of the conventional drug delivery method. This approach offers a much more efficient release of the drug by becoming active after the drug is inside the body. Acyclovir (ACV) drug is mostly used to treat herpes, and it was modified by addition of stereospecific dipeptides, L-valine and D-valine, resulting in L-valine-D-valine-acyclovir. This prodrug disintegrates into the parent drug ACV inside the body. This chapter discusses the synthesis method of such drugs along with the types of diseases that could be treated. Moreover, various drug delivery methods are also mentioned, which further encapsulate these stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs like nanoparticles and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for additional layer of protection to ensure better absorption. Although there are still some challenges that need to be considered including toxicity, error in absorption rate, and other side effects, by overcoming these issues we will be able to focus on the future applications of such a capable drug delivery method.

References

  1. 1.
    Abet V, Filace F, Recio J, Alvarez-Builla J, Burgos C. Review article: prodrug approach: an overview of recent cases. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;127:810–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.10.061.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barot M, Bagui M, Gokulgandhi MR, Mitra AK. Prodrug strategies in ocular drug delivery. Med Chem (Shariqah (United Arab Emirates)). 2012;8(4):753–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seyfoddin A, Shaw J, Al-Kassas R. Solid lipid nanoparticles for ocular drug delivery. Drug Deliv. 2010;17(7):467–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Talluri RS, Samanta SK, Gaudana R, Mitra AK. Synthesis, metabolism and cellular permeability of enzymatically stable dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir. Int J Pharm. 2008;361(1–2):118–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.05.024.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang Z, Pal D, Mitra AK. Stereoselective evasion of P-glycoprotein, cytochrome P450 3A, and hydrolases by peptide prodrug modification of saquinavir. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:3199–213.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.23193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang X, Shah SJ, Wang Z, Agrahari V, Pal D, Mitra AK. Nanoparticle-based topical ophthalmic formulation for sustained release of stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir. Drug Deliv. 2015;23(7):2399–409.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2014.996833.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shrushti Patil
    • 1
  • Nandish Pathak
    • 2
  • Yashwant V. Pathak
    • 1
  1. 1.USF College of PharmacyTampaUSA
  2. 2.Dr. B. B. Thakar Research CenterTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations