Pharmacotherapy of Diabetic Macular Edema and Retinopathy

  • Ashley Oake
  • Charles Preuss
  • Yashwant V. PathakEmail author


Diabetes mellitus affects over 20 million people in the United States and that number is growing every year. It is caused by a lack of insulin production which leads to an excess amount of glucose to build up in the bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common affecting over 90% of the people with the condition. It occurs when there is a resistance to insulin but can be managed with a healthy lifestyle. Type 1 diabetes mellitus usually is diagnosed in younger adults and occurs when insulin is not produced at all in the body. When these conditions are not properly managed, the patient can develop diabetic retinopathy. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream and causes blood vessels in the eye to swell and produce microaneurysms. Growth factors are released to cause proliferation of new blood vessels in the eye. Fluid starts to leak from these blood vessels into the retinal cavity to cause diabetic macular edema. This disease is the number one cause of blindness in patients diagnosed with diabetes. Proper treatment of these diseases includes management of glucose levels, laser photocoagulation, vitrectomy, anti-VEGF injections, and corticosteroids.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashley Oake
    • 1
  • Charles Preuss
    • 2
  • Yashwant V. Pathak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.University of South Florida College of PharmacyTampaUSA
  2. 2.Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA

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