Variation of Lateral Soil Resistance Due to Two-Way Cyclic Loading

  • Myungjae Lee
  • Mintaek Yoo
  • Kyungtae Bae
  • Youseok Kim
  • Heejung YounEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


In this study, the variation of lateral soil resistance of the monopile were investigated through centrifuge tests. The soil used in the experiment was Jumunjin standard sand, and the soil deposit was created with a relative density of 80%. The static load test was carried out to obtain the static lateral capacity, and the magnitudes of cyclic load were determined at 30, 50, 80 and 120% of the static capacity. A hundred cycles were applied to the pile head with a frequency of 0.125 Hz. The lateral soil resistance and pile displacement of the monopile subjected to cyclic loading were calculated through experimental data. At 2 and 5 m depth, the soil resistance increased with increasing number of cyclic loading, while the resistance decreased at 7 and 9 m depth.



This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2016R1C1B2013478) and by the project titled as “Development of Substructure Systems for Offshore Wind Power in Shallow Sea Water (Less than 40 m)/2011T100201105” funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy.


  1. Achmus, M., et al.: Behavior of monopile foundations under cyclic lateral load. Comput. Geotech. 36(5), 725–735 (2009). Scholar
  2. American Petroleum Institute (API).: Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and constructing fixed offshore platforms. API Recommendation Practice 2A (RP 2A), 17th edn. (1987)Google Scholar
  3. ASTM D2487.: Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2011).
  4. Cox, W.R., et al.: Field testing of laterally loaded piles in sand. Offshore Technol. Conf. (1974). Scholar
  5. DNV, Det Norske Veritas.: DNV-RP-H103 Modelling and Analysis of Marine Operations (2011)Google Scholar
  6. Dou, H., Byrne, P.M.: Dynamic response of single piles and soil pile interaction. Can. Geotech. J. 33(1), 80–96 (1996). Scholar
  7. Fleming, W.G., Weltman, A.J., Randolph, M.F., Elson, W.K.: Piling Engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  8. Garnier, J.: Advances in Lateral Cyclic Pile Design: Contribution of the SOLCYP project. In: Proceedings of TC 209 Workshop - Design for cyclic loading: piles and other foundations (ISSMGE), Paris, France (2013)Google Scholar
  9. Kim, K., Nam, B.H., Youn, H.: Effect of Cyclic Loading on the lateral behavior of offshore monopiles using the strain wedge model. Math. Probl. Eng. 2015 (2015).
  10. Ko, H.Y.: Summary of the state-of-the-art in centrifuge model testing. In: Centrifuges in Soil Mechanics, pp. 11–18 (1988)Google Scholar
  11. Li, Z., Haigh, S., Bolton, M.: Centrifuge modelling of mono-pile under cyclic lateral loads. 7th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, Zurich, vol. 2, pp. 965–970 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Matlock, H.: Correlations for design of laterally loaded piles in soft clay. In: Offshore Technology in Civil Engineering’s Hall of Fame Papers from the Early Years, pp. 77–94 (1970)Google Scholar
  13. Møller, I.F., Christiansen, T.: Laterally loaded monopile in dry and saturated sand—static and cyclic loading. Master Project, June (2011)Google Scholar
  14. National Cooperative Highway Research Program. (NCHRP).: Static and dynamic lateral loading of pile groups, NCHRP Report 461. Transportation Research Board—National Research Council (2001)Google Scholar
  15. Ovesen, N.K.: The scaling law relationship. In: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 319–323 (1979)Google Scholar
  16. Peng, J.R., et al.: A device to cyclic lateral loaded model piles. Geotech. Test. J. 29(4), 1–7 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. Reese, L.C., Cox, W.R., Koop, F.D.: Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles in Sand. In: Offshore Technology in Civil Engineering Hall of Fame Papers from the Early Years, pp. 95–105 (1974)Google Scholar
  18. Remaud, D.: Piles under Lateral Forces: Experimental Study of Piles Group. University of Nantes, France (1999)Google Scholar
  19. Winkler, E.: Theory of elasticity and strength. Dominicus Prague (1867)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Myungjae Lee
    • 1
  • Mintaek Yoo
    • 2
  • Kyungtae Bae
    • 3
  • Youseok Kim
    • 3
  • Heejung Youn
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringHongik UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Korea Railroad Research InstituteUiwangRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Daewoo Institute of Construction TechnologySuwonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations