A Different Perspective on the Production and Application of Warm Mix Asphalt Under Unfavorable Temperature Conditions

  • Rui Micaelo
  • José NevesEmail author
  • Rui Lopes
  • Alexandra Jesus
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)


Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is produced by a variety of technologies at lower temperatures that enable to gain important environmental and social benefits and, in consequence, to contribute to a more sustainable transportation infrastructure. The producer usually defines the temperatures used in WMA production. However, some references suggest the increase of temperature in order to allow a longer time to transport or to compact in cases of unfavourable weather conditions, mainly under low temperatures. The objective of this paper is to analyse the feasibility of producing WMA at the same temperatures of hot mix asphalt (HMA) guaranteeing an adequate compaction, and final performance in service. The paper describes a laboratory study to investigate the properties of a WMA using different additives and varying the mixing and compaction temperatures. The effect of production temperatures on the performance of the WMA was evaluated through binder drainage (production phase), volumetric properties (compaction phase), and resistance to permanent deformation (service phase). The paper also presents a numerical study on the time available for paving WMA under unfavourable climatic conditions. Results demonstrated that it is possible to produce WMA at high temperatures without problems of binder drainage, during transport, and of performance in service if adequate compaction is achieved. In fact, the production temperatures influenced the compaction phase. However, it is possible to increase the temperature without negatively affecting the required volumetric properties. The rut depth of the permanent deformation test was mostly influenced by the air-voids of the compacted WMA and the binder. From the numerical study, it was concluded that the time available for in situ compaction increased substantially when WMA was paved at higher temperature. However, in cases of low air temperature and thin layer, the increase of temperature may not be sufficient to obtain the desired level of density or air-voids.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Micaelo
    • 1
  • José Neves
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rui Lopes
    • 3
  • Alexandra Jesus
    • 3
  1. 1.CERis, Department of Civil EngineeringFCT, Universidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal
  2. 2.CERis, Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and GeoresourcesInstituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.FCT, Universidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal

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