Advertisement

Assessment of Mass Movements and Critical Phreatic Levels in Soil Slopes

  • D. Ravichandran
  • E. Nishok Kumar
  • R. Ramkrishnan
  • Karthik Viswanathan
  • S. Sandeep
  • K. Manasa
Conference paper
Part of the Sustainable Civil Infrastructures book series (SUCI)

Abstract

Tectonic movements and vibrations of the earth cannot be controlled, which causes devastating natural hazards like landslides and earthquakes which have accounted for many lives in the previous years. The major reasons for landslides are heavy rainfall, liquefaction, rise in pore water pressure, floods, etc. This experimental study focuses on identifying the Critical Phreatic Level (CPL) of different soil types for different slope geometries. Different soil types were modeled in a tank of dimensions 2.30 × 1.00 ×  1.25 m to simulate the natural field conditions like field density, ground water flow and slope angle in the laboratory with scaled down slopes of specific angles, based on the natural angle of repose of the soil. Density closely resembling the natural field density was obtained by air pluviation and a constant water inflow from an adjacent chamber was provided to simulate groundwater flow. The slope geometry was modeled, initial conditions were set and the phreatic level in the slope was continuously monitored until the slope fails with considerable slope displacement. The soil properties such as permeability, bulk unit weight, specific gravity and angle of repose obtained from laboratory tests were used as input parameters to model the slopes in PLAXIS 2D. The displacement values obtained from the software were compared with the displacement values obtained from the experiment, and were found to be similar, thereby validating the results.

Notes

Acknowledgment

We would like to express our gratitude to Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India for providing the necessary funds and facilities required for the successful completion of the project. We express our heartfelt thanks to Mr. K. Sreenivasan and the supporting lab staff for their sincere support.

References

  1. Alamshahi, S., Hataf, N.: Bearing capacity of strip footings on sand slopes reinforced with geogrid and grid-anchor. Geotext. Geomembr. 27, 217–226 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2008.11.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aryal, K.: Slope Stability Evaluations by Limit Equilibrium and Finite Element Methods. Doctoral Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (2006)Google Scholar
  3. Bray, J., Travasarou, T.: Simplified procedure for estimating earthquake-induced deviatoric slope displacements. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 133, 381–392 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2007)133:4(381)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Butterfield, R., Andrawes, K.: An air activated sand spreader for forming uniform sand beds. Géotechnique 20, 97–100 (1970).  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1970.20.1.97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, H., Lee, C.: A dynamic model for rainfall-induced landslides on natural slopes. Geomorphology 51, 269–288 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-555x(02)00224-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crosta, G., Prisco, C.: On slope instability induced by seepage erosion. Can. Geotech. J. 36, 1056–1073 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-36-6-1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dave, T., Dasaka, S.: Assessment of portable traveling pluviator to prepare reconstituted sand specimens. Geomech. Eng. 4, 79–90 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2012.4.2.079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drnevich, V., Rad, N., Tumay, M.: Factors affecting sand specimen preparation by raining. Geotech. Test. J. 10, 31–37 (1987).  https://doi.org/10.1520/gtj10136jCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dupla, J., Canou, J., Gouvenot, D.: An advanced experimental set-up for studying a monodirectional grout injection process. Ground Improv. 8, 91–99 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1680/grim.8.3.91.41117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gasmo, J., Rahardjo, H., Leong, E.: Infiltration effects on stability of a residual soil slope. Comput. Geotech. 26, 145–165 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-352x(99)00035-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hack, R., Alkema, D., Kruse, G., et al.: Influence of earthquakes on the stability of slopes. Eng. Geol. 91, 4–15 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2006.12.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hammouri, N., Malkawi, A., Yamin, M.: Stability analysis of slopes using the finite element method and limiting equilibrium approach. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 67, 471–478 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-008-0156-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iverson, R., Reid, M.: Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model. Water Resour. Res. 28, 925–938 (1992).  https://doi.org/10.1029/91wr02694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kildalen, S., Stenhamar P.: NGI laboratory sand rainer. Internal report 51505–15, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (1977)Google Scholar
  15. Kim, J., Jeong, S., Park, S., Sharma, J.: Influence of rainfall-induced wetting on the stability of slopes in weathered soils. Eng. Geol. 75, 251–262 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.06.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kolbuszewski, J.: An experimental study of the maximum and minimum porosities of sands. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 158–165 (1948)Google Scholar
  17. Kolbuszewski, J., Jones, R.: The preparation of sand samples for laboratory testing. Proc. Midl. Soil Mech. Found. Eng. Soc. 4, 107–123 (1961)Google Scholar
  18. Lam, L., Fredlund, D., Barbour, S.: Transient seepage model for saturated–unsaturated soil systems: a geotechnical engineering approach. Can. Geotech. J. 24, 565–580 (1987).  https://doi.org/10.1139/t87-071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laouafa, F., Darve, F.: Modelling of slope failure by a material instability mechanism. Comput. Geotech. 29, 301–325 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-352x(01)00030-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ng, C., Pang, Y.: Influence of stress state on soil-water characteristics and slope stability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 126, 157–166 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2000)126:2(157)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ng, C., Shi, Q.: A numerical investigation of the stability of unsaturated soil slopes subjected to transient seepage. Comput. Geotech. 22, 1–28 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-352x(97)00036-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pradel, D., Raad, G.: Effect of permeability on surficial stability of homogeneous slopes. J. Geotech. Eng. 119, 315–332 (1993).  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)0733-9410(1993)119:2(315)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rahardjo, H., Lee, T., Leong, E., Rezaur, R.: Response of a residual soil slope to rainfall. Can. Geotech. J. 42, 340–351 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1139/t04-101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rahimi, A., Rahardjo, H., Leong, E.: Effect of antecedent rainfall patterns on rainfall-induced slope failure. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 137, 483–491 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)gt.1943-5606.0000451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ramkrishnan, R., Karthik, V., Unnithan, M.S., Kiran Balaji, R., Athul Vinu, M., Venugopalan, A.: Stabilization of seepage induced soil mass movements using sand drains. Geotech. Eng. J. SEAGS & AGSSEA, 48(4), 129–137 (2017)Google Scholar
  26. Rinaldi, M., Casagli, N., Dapporto, S., Gargini, A.: Monitoring and modelling of pore water pressure changes and riverbank stability during flow events. Earth Surf. Proc. Land. 29, 237–254 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Saussus, D., Frost, J.: Simulating the membrane contact patterns of triaxial sand specimens. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 24, 931–946 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9853(200010)24:12<931:aid-nag100>3.0.co;2-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saygili, G., Rathje, E.: Empirical predictive models for earthquake-induced sliding displacements of slopes. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 134, 790–803 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2008)134:6(790)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sazzad, M., Haque, M.: Effect of surcharge on the stability of slope in a homogeneous soil by FEM. In: 2nd International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering, pp 315–318 (2014)Google Scholar
  30. Simon, A., Larsen, M., Hupp, C.: The role of soil processes in determining mechanisms of slope failure and hillslope development in a humid-tropical forest eastern Puerto Rico. Geomorphology 3, 263–286 (1990).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-555x(90)90007-dCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smethurst, J., Clarke, D., Powrie, W.: Seasonal changes in pore water pressure in a grass-covered cut slope in London Clay. Géotechnique 56, 523–537 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2006.56.8.523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vaid, Y.: Relative density of pluviated sand samples. Jpn. Soc. Soil Mech. Found. Eng. 24(2), 101–105 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vaid, Y., Negussey, D.: Relative density of pluviated sand samples. Soils Found. 24, 101–105 (1984).  https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf1972.24.2_101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vaid, Y., Negussey, D.: Preparation of reconstituted sand specimens. Advanced triaxial testing of soils and rock, ASTM STP977. In: Donaghe, R.T., Chaney, R.C., Silver, M.L., (eds) ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 405–417 (1988)Google Scholar
  35. Vandamme, J., Zou, Q.: Investigation of slope instability induced by seepage and erosion by a particle method. Comput. Geotech. 48, 9–20 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2012.09.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vanmarcke, E.: Probabilistic modeling of soil profiles. J. Geotech. Eng. Div. 103(11), 1227–1246 (1977)Google Scholar
  37. Viggiani, G., Tamagnini, C.: Ground movements around excavations in granular soils: a few remarks on the influence of the constitutive assumptions on FE predictions. Mech. Cohesive-frictional Mater. 5, 399–423 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1484(200007)5:5<399:aid-cfm101>3.0.co;2-rCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang, J., Wang, C., Lu, G.: Application of PLAXIS to simulation of foundation excavation and support. Chin. J. Rock Mech. Eng. 35 (2007)Google Scholar
  39. Wilson, R., Keefer, D.: Dynamic analysis of a slope failure from the 6 August 1979 Coyote Lake, California, earthquake. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Geomech. Abstr. 21, 220–221 (1984).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(84)90499-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhao, Y., Gafar, K., Elshafie, M., Deeks, A., Knappett, J., Madabushi, S.: Calibration and use of new automatic sand pourer. In: Sixth International Conference on Physical Modeling in Geotechnics, Hong Kong, 4–6 August, Taylor & Francis, London, pp. 265–270 (2006)Google Scholar
  41. Zhu, H., Shi, B., Zhang, J., et al.: Distributed fiber optic monitoring and stability analysis of a model slope under surcharge loading. J. Mt. Sci. 11, 979–989 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2816-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Ravichandran
    • 1
  • E. Nishok Kumar
    • 1
  • R. Ramkrishnan
    • 1
  • Karthik Viswanathan
    • 2
  • S. Sandeep
    • 1
  • K. Manasa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Amrita School of EngineeringAmrita Vishwa VidyapeethamCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations