Advertisement

The Obstacle is the Way: Resilience in the Lives of Salvadoran Immigrants in the United States

  • M. Alejandra Arce
  • Ernesto R. Escoto
Chapter
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Abstract

Although Salvadorans are the third largest Spanish-speaking community in the United States, research on their adaptation and well-being remains scarce. This chapter seeks to contribute to the literature by (1) highlighting key moments in the history of El Salvador and its people, and (2) analyzing the existing literature on the Salvadoran immigrant experience from a strengths-based perspective. This chapter emphasizes the importance of considering different sources of resilience when seeking to understand the Salvadoran immigrant experience.

Keywords

Salvadoran immigrants Adversity Resilience Immigrant families Social support 

References

  1. Baily, C. D. R., Henderson, S. W., & Tayler, R. (2016). Global mental health in our own backyard: An unaccompanied immigrant child’s migration from el Salvador to New York city. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72(8), 766–778.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22358CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Baran, A., Magaña-Salgado, J., & Wong, T. (2017). Economic contributions by Salvadoran, Honduran, and Haitian TPS holders (policy report). Washington, DC: Immigrant Legal Resource Center.Google Scholar
  3. Bello-Suazo, G. (2008). El Origen del Hombre y la Mujer en El Salvador (The origin of men and women in El Salvador). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General history, 4th ed.). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  4. Buckingham, S. L., & Brodsky, A. E. (2015). ‘Our differences don’t separate us’: Immigrant families navigate intrafamilial acculturation gaps through diverse resilience processes. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 3(3), 143–159.  https://doi.org/10.1037/lat0000042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carranza, M. E. (2012). Cross-border family therapy: An innovative approach to working with Latina refugee women in therapy. Women & Therapy, 35(1–2), 57–67.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02703149.2012.634725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Center for Migration Studies. (2017). A statistical and demographic profile of the US Temporary Protected Status Populations from El Salvador, Honduras, and Haiti. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 5(3), 577–592.  https://doi.org/10.14240/jmhs.v5i3.99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). The World Fact Book. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/es.html
  8. Cheney, G. A. (1990). El Salvador: Country in crisis. New York, NY: Franklin Watts.Google Scholar
  9. Cienfuegos, E. (2008). El Conflicto Armado en El Salvador (The armed conflict in El Salvador). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General History, 4th ed., pp. 153–164). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  10. Cohn, D., Gonzalez-Barrera, A., & Cuddington, D. (2013). Remittances to Latin American recovered—But not to Mexico. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  11. Cohn, D., & Passel, J. S. (2017). More than 100,000 Haitian and Central American immigrants face decision on their status in the U.S. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  12. Dominguez, J. (2008). Independencia de Centro America (Independence of Central America). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General history, 4th ed., pp. 43–56). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  13. Flores, M. (2008). Origen del Estado y de la Elite Economica (Origin of the state and of the business elite). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General history, 4th ed., pp. 57–64). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  14. Ganas, H. (1992). Second-generation decline: Scenarios for the economic and ethnic futures of the post-1965 American immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15, 173–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hernandez, P. (2008). El Inicio del Fin de la Dictadura Militar (The beginning of the end of the military dictorship). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General history, 4th ed., pp. 107–118). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  16. Horton, S. (2009). A mother’s heart is weighed down with stones: A phenomenological approach to the experience of transnational motherhood. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 33(1), 21–40.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11013-008-9117-zCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Jensen, L. A., & Dost-Gözkan, A. (2015). Adolescent–parent relations in Asian Indian and Salvadoran immigrant families: A cultural–developmental analysis of autonomy, authority, conflict, and cohesion. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25(2), 340–351.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kuhlberg, J. A., Peña, J. B., & Zayas, L. H. (2010). Familism, parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors and suicide attempts among adolescent Latinas. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(4), 425–440.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-010-01790CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Kusnir, D. (2005). Salvadoran families. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 256–265). New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Landolt, P., & Wei Da, W. (2005). The spatially ruptured practices of migrant families: A comparison of immigrants from el salvador and the People’s republic of china. Current Sociology, 53(4), 625-653. doi:10.1177/0011392105052719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. López, G. (2015). Hispanics of Salvadoran origin in the United States, 2013. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  22. Lopez, M. & Jovel, R. (2008). La Colonia (Colonization). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General history, 4th ed., pp. 19–42). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  23. Menjivar, C. (2010). Religion and immigration in comparative perspective: Catholic and Evangelical Salvadorans in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and Phoenix (2004). In H. Lune, E. S. Pumar, R. Koppel, H. Lune, E. S. Pumar, & R. Koppel (Eds.), Perspectives in social research methods and analysis: A reader for sociology (pp. 246–264). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Menjivar, C., & Abrego, L. (2009). Parents and children across borders: Legal instability and intergenerational relations in Guatemalan and Salvadoran families. In N. Foner & N. Foner (Eds.), Across generations: Immigrant families in America (pp. 160–189). New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Meyer, R. (2012). Peace without tranquility: A comparative analysis of two causal explanations of persistent violence in El Salvador and Honduras (Master’s dissertation, Barcelona, Spain).Google Scholar
  26. Migration Policy Institute. (2015). The Salvadoran Diaspora in the U.S. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  27. Miyares, I., Wright, R., Mountz, A., Bailey, A., & Jonak, J. (2003). The interrupted circle: Truncated transnationalism and the Salvadoran experience. Journal of Latin American Geography, 2(1), 74–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Molina, R. S. (2008). Modes of incorporation, social exclusion, and transnationalism: Salvadoran’s adaptation to the Washington DC metropolitan area. Human Organization, 67(3), 269–280.  https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.67.3.a23137247832g54tCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moodie, E. (2010). El Salvador in the aftermath of peace: Crime, uncertainty, and the transition to Democracy. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  30. Moran, R. (2008). La Guerra El Salvador-Honduras y el Mercado Comun Centroamericano (The Salvadoran-Honduran War and the Central American Common Market). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General history, 4th ed., pp. 128–152). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  31. Orrenius, P. M., & Zavodny, M. (2015). The impact of temporary protected status on immigrants’ labor market outcomes. American Economic Review, 105(5), 576–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peñate, O. (2008). El Futuro de El Salvador de Cara al Siglo XXI (El Salvador’s future in the face of the 21st century). In Oscar Martinez Peñate (Ed.), El Salvador: Historia General (4ta ed.; El Salvador: General history, 4th ed., pp. 165–180). San Salvador, El Salvador: Editorial Nuevo Enfoque.Google Scholar
  33. Perez-Brignoli, H. (1989). A brief history of Central America (R. B. Sawrey & S. S. de Sawrey, Trans.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Pew Research Center (2017). Rise in U.S. immigrants from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras outpaces growth from elsewhere. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  35. Suro, R. (1998). Stranger among us. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knoff.Google Scholar
  36. The American National Red Cross. (2018). Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/el-salvador/quake-deaths-2001
  37. U.S. Agency for International Development. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.usaid.gov/el-salvador/history
  38. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. (1986). Despite a generous spirit: Denying asylum in the United States. Washington, DC: American Council for Nationalities Service.Google Scholar
  39. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. (2013). A profile of the Modern Salvadoran Immigrant, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  40. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Refugee Resettlement. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/orr/about/ucs/facts-and-data
  41. Woodward, R. L., Jr. (1999). Central America: A nation divided (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Counseling and Wellness CenterUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations