Argentines in the United States: Migration and Continuity

  • Andrés J. ConsoliEmail author
  • Eduardo Bunge
  • Mercedes Fernández Oromendia
  • Agustina Bertone
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)


Argentina, a South American country with over 44 million inhabitants, is characterized by its family-centered, affectionate culture, and by close interpersonal distance. While a sizable portion of the population descends from European migrants, there is also a significant portion of the population with Amerindian roots. Argentina has experienced periods of political and economic instability, including the Dirty War in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the economic collapse of 2001, and the financial difficulties of 2014. Socioeconomic, educational, and family reasons have incentivized Argentines to relocate to other countries; it is estimated that over one million Argentines live overseas, including the United States. Approximately 242,000 Argentines and Argentine Americans reside in the United States. The chapter details some of the challenges and opportunities encountered by Argentines in the post-migration era and their relationship to their homeland.


Argentina Argentine Americans Demographics Migration Cultural characteristics 



The authors would like to acknowledge Ms. Alicia Falkowski and the staff of the Argentine Consulate in the United States who kindly responded to our queries regarding information about Argentines in the United States.


  1. Alonso, M. M., & Klinar, D. (2013). Los psicólogos en Argentina: Relevamiento cuantitativo. Paper presented at the V Congreso Internacional de Investigación y Práctica Profesional en Psicología, XX Jornadas de Investigación, Noveno Encuentro de Investigadores en Psicología del MERCOSUR, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires. Retrieved from
  2. Brown, A., & Patten, E. (2013, June). Hispanics of Argentine origin in the United States, 2011. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from
  3. Burton, L. M., Bonilla-Silva, E., Ray, V., Buckelew, R., & Hordge Freeman, E. (2010). Critical race theories, colorism, and the decade’s research on families of color. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 440–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cardoso, J. B., & Thompson, S. (2010). Common themes of resilience among Latino immigrant families: A systematic review of the literature. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 91(3), 257–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Central Intelligence Agency. (2018). The world factbook. Retrieved from
  6. Cía, A. H., Stagnaro, J. C., Aguilar Gaxiola, S., Vommaro, H., Loera, G., Medina-Mora, M. E., … Kessler, R. C. (2018). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of mental disorders in adults from the Argentinean study of mental health epidemiology. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 53(4), 341–350. Scholar
  7. CONADEP. (1986). Nunca más: The report of the Argentine National Commission on the disappeared. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.Google Scholar
  8. (n.d.). Argentina—Migrant remittance. Retrieved from
  9. Ennis, A. R., Rios-Vargas, M., & Albert, N. G. (2011, May). The Hispanic population: 2010. Washington, DC: United States Census Bureau. Retrieved from
  10. Garcia-Preto, N. (2005). Latino families: An overview. In M. McGoldrick, J. Giordano, & N. Garcia-Preto (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (3rd ed., pp. 153–165). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  11. Grinberg, L., & Grinberg, R. (1984). Psicoanálisis de la migración y del exilio. Madrid, Spain: Alianza.Google Scholar
  12. Herscovici, C. R. (2004). Understanding and treating the family in Argentina. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 15(1–2), 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Human Development Report. (2013). The rise of the South: Human progress in a diverse world. Retrieved from
  14. Jachimowicz, M. (2003, July). Argentine’s economic woes spur emigration. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from
  15. Jachimowicz, M. (2006, February). Argentina: A new era of migration and migration policy. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from
  16. Kohn, R., Levav, I., de Almeida, J. M. C., Vicente, B., Andrade, L., Caraveo-Anduaga, J. J., … Saraceno, B. (2005). Mental disorders in Latin America and the Caribbean: A public health priority. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 18(4–5), 229–240.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Leiderman, E. A., Mugnolo, J. F., Bruscoli, N., & Massi, J. (2006). Consumo de psicofármacos en la población general de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Vertex Revista Argentina de Psiquiatría, 17, 85–91.Google Scholar
  18. López, G. (2015, September). Hispanics of Argentinean origin in the United States, 2013. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from:
  19. Mazumdar, S., Mazumdar, S., Docuyanan, F., & McLaughlin, C. M. (2000). Creating a sense of place: The Vietnamese-Americans and Little Saigon. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20(4), 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mok, A., Morris, M. W., Benet-Martínez, V., & Karakitapoğlu-Aygün, Z. (2007). Embracing American culture structures of social identity and social networks among first-generation biculturals. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(5), 629–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Muller, F., & Palavezzatti, C. M. (2015). Orientación teórica y práctica clínica: Los psicoterapeutas de Buenos Aires. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 24(1), 13–21.Google Scholar
  22. Navarra, G. (2011, September 4). Al final…, ¿Llegamos de los barcos? [In the end…, did we come of the boats?]. Revista La Nación. Retrieved from
  23. Nguyen, A. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2013). Biculturalism and adjustment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 122–159. Scholar
  24. Pew Research Center. (2014, July). Global opposition to U.S. surveillance and drones, but limited harm to America’s image. Retrieved from
  25. Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 9(1–2), 34–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reuters. (2014). Chronology: Argentina’s turbulent history of economic crises. Retrieved from
  27. Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Benet-Martínez, V., Meca, A., Zamboanga, B. L., … Soto, D. W. (2015). Longitudinal trajectories of bicultural identity integration in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with mental health and family functioning. International Journal of Psychology, 50(6), 440–450.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Selmer, J., & Lauring, J. (2015). Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment: The moderating effect of language difficulty. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(3), 401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shapira, V. (2009). La Argentina ansiolítica. Retrieved from
  30. Smith, T. B., & Silva, L. (2011). Ethnic identity and personal well-being of people of color: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 42–60.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Sorokowska, A., Sorokowski, P., Hilpert, P., Cantarero, K., Frackowiak, T., Ahmadi, K., … Pierce, J. (2017). Preferred interpersonal distances: A global comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(4), 577–592. Scholar
  32. Stoney, S., Batalova, J., & Russell, J. (2013, May). South American immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from
  33. The Jewish People Policy Institute. (2013). Annual assessment 2011-2012. Retrieved from
  34. The World Bank. (2018). World bank country and lending groups. Retrieved from
  35. Trading Economics. (2018). Inflation rate—Countries—List. Retrieved from
  36. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. (2002). Termination of the designation of Argentina as a participant under the Visa Waiver Program. Federal Register, 67(35), 7943–7945.Google Scholar
  37. Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2011). Ethnic identity. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 791–809). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Viladrich, A. (2005). Can you read my aura? Latino healers in New York City. Anthropology News, 46(2), 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Viladrich, A. (2007). From “shrinks” to “urban shamans:” Argentine immigrants’ therapeutic eclecticism in New York City. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 31(3), 307–328.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Villegas, J. F. (2012). Autobiografía [Autobiography]. In H. Klappenbach & R. León (Eds.), Historia de la psicología iberoamericana en autobiografías [History of Iberoamerican psychology in autobiographies] (pp. 275–312). Lima, Peru: Universitaria.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrés J. Consoli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eduardo Bunge
    • 2
  • Mercedes Fernández Oromendia
    • 3
  • Agustina Bertone
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Counseling, Clinical, and School PsychologyGevirtz Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Palo Alto UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.University of California, Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations