Bank aval provides a bank’s undertaking to pay a debt obligation of the end-buyer at maturity. It is often associated with documentary collections where release of the document of title can be made conditional upon the provision of a bank aval. Its operation, use and bank liability to make payment is explained. The due diligence and process of purchasing an avalised bill of exchange on a straight and discount-to-yield basis are described. Primary and secondary forfait is discussed, along with the benefit of a commitment to purchase and the required warranties, representations, and undertakings from the seller in respect of the validity and enforceability of the debt obligation prior to debt purchase.