Advertisement

Nutrition in the Newborn

  • Stephanie Tong-Miller
  • Henry H. Bernstein
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter offers healthcare providers an overview of how best to promote newborn nutrition. Parents should be making informed decisions on how to provide nutrition for their newborn to promote optimal growth, development, and good health. This chapter will cover the benefits of breastfeeding and discuss the clinician’s role in supporting exclusive breastfeeding. Through a case-study approach, providers will learn to recognize and address common issues that mothers may face when they choose to breastfeed. This chapter will also discuss formula as alternative source of feeding. Newborn nutrition is closely tied to subsequent infant and maternal health, and guidance from the healthcare provider can help to establish healthy feeding patterns in the earliest stages of life.

Keywords

Nutrition Breastfeeding Formula Lactation Growth Latch Breast milk 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The comprehensive literature reviews and detailed editorial assistance of research assistants Victoria Chi, Shannon Cleary, Angie Lee, Irene Song, Yingna Wang, Yun Chao Chen and Maggie Sherin at Cohen Children’s Medical Center are greatly appreciated.

References

  1. 1.
    Chantry CJ, Howard CR, Auinger P. Full breastfeeding duration and associated decrease in respiratory tract infection in US children. Pediatrics. 2006;117(2):425–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quigley MA, Kelly YJ, Sacker A. Breastfeeding and hospitalization for diarrheal and respiratory infection in the United Kingdom millennium cohort study. Pediatrics. 2007;119(4)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, et al. Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2007;153(153):1–186.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on nutrition, American Academy of Pediatrics section on allergy and immunology. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008;121(1):183–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akobeng AK, Ramanan AV, Buchan I, Heller RF. Effect of breast feeding on risk of coeliac disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(1):39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barclay AR, Russell RK, Wilson ML, Gilmour WH, Satsangi J, Wilson DC. Systematic review: the role of breastfeeding in the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr. 2009;155(3):421–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Perrine CG, Shealy KM, Scanlon KS, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: hospital practices to support breastfeeding—United States, 2007 and 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(30):1020–5.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Das UN. Breastfeeding prevents type 2 diabetes mellitus: but, how and why? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1436–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bener A, Hoffmann GF, Afify Z, Rasul K, Tewfik I. Does prolonged breastfeeding reduce the risk for childhood leukemia and lymphomas? Minerva Pediatr. 2008;60(2):155–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Der G, Batty GD, Deary IJ. Effects of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2006;333(7575):945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lucas A, Cole TJ, Morley R, Lucas PJ, Davis JA, Bamford MF, Crowle P, Dossetor JF, Pearse R, Boon A. Factors associated with maternal choice to provide breast milk for low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child. 1988;63(1):48–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Long term effects of breastfeeding: a systematic review. World Health Organization. 2013:57–67. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/79198/1/9789241505307_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed Aug 11, 2017.
  13. 13.
    Koo W, Tank S, Martin S, Shi R. Human milk and neurodevelopment in children with very low birth weight: a systematic review. Nutr J. 2014;13:94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Henderson JJ, Evans SF, Straton JA, Priest SR, Hagan R. Impact of postnatal depression on breastfeeding duration. Birth. 2003;30(3):175–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW, Willett WC, Manson JE, Michels KB. Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2005;294(20):2601–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet. 2002;360(9328):187–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wagner C, Greer F. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;111(4):908.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    O’Connor M. Infant Formula. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79(7):565–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schanler RJ. Breastfeeding handbook for physicians. 2nd ed. Elk Grove Village: American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2014. p. 93. Table 7–4.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Making Breastmilk. Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Womenshealth.gov https://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/learning-breastfeed/making-breastmilk#10 Updated August 1, 2017. Accessed September 29, 2017.
  21. 21.
    How to Tell if a Baby is Getting Enough Milk. Healthychildren.org https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/breastfeeding/pages/How-to-Tell-if-Baby-is-Getting-Enough-Milk.aspx Updated November 11, 2015. Accessed September 29, 2017.
  22. 22.
    The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee. ABM clinical protocol #9: use of Galactogogues in initiating or augmenting the rate of maternal milk secretion (first revision January 2011). Breastfeed Med. 2011;6(1):41–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sachs HC. Committee on drugs. The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics. Pediatrics. 2013;132(3):796–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kellams A, Harrel C, Omage S, Gregory C, Rosen-Carole C. The academy of breastfeeding medicine. ABM clinical protocol #3: supplementary feedings in the healthy term breastfed neonate, revised 2017. Breastfeed Med. 2017;12(3):1–11.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Howard CR, Howard FM, Lanphear B, Eberly S, deBlieck EA, Oakes D, Lawrence RA. Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cupfeeding and their effect on breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2003;111(3):511–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Flint A, New K, Davies MW. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;8:1–41.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    World Health Organization: Division of Child Health and Development. Evidence for the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. 1998;98:9.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Section on Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):827–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Riordan J, Wambach K. Breastfeeding and human lactation. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2009.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Flaherman V, Schaefer E, Kuzniewicz M, Li S, Walsh E, Paul I. Early weight loss nomograms for exclusively breastfed newborns. Pediatrics. 2015;135(1)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Manganaro R, Mamí C, Marrone T, Marseglia L, Gemelli M. Incidence of dehydration and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. J Pediatr. 2001;139(5):673–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Preer GL, Newby PK, Philipp BL. Weight loss in exclusively breastfed infants delivered by cesarean birth. J Hum Lact. 2012;28(2):153–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mezzacappa M, Ferreira B. Excessive weight loss in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a baby-friendly hospital. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2016;34(3):281–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fonseca MJ, Severo M, Barros H, Santos AC. Determinants of weight changes during the first 96 hours of life in full-term newborns. Birth. 2014;41(2):160–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Macdonald PD, Ross SR, Grant L, Young D. Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Nenotal Ed. 2003;88(6):F472–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Davanzo R, Cannioto Z, Ronfani L, Monasta L, Demarini S. Breastfeeding and neonatal weight loss in healthy term infants. J Hum Lact. 2013;29(1):45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fenton T. A new growth chart for preterm babies: Babson and Benda’s chart updated with recent data and a new format. BMC Pediatr. 2003;3(13)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Heinig MJ, Cohen RJ. Risk factors for suboptimal infant breastfeeding behavior, delayed onset of lactation, and excess neonatal weight loss. Pediatrics. 2003;112:607–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    O’Sullivan A, Farver M, Smilowitz J. The influence of early infant-feeding practices on the intestinal microbiome and body composition in infants. Nutr Metab Insights. 2015;8(Suppl 1):1–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cadwell K, Turner-Maffei C. Pocket guide for lactation management. 2nd ed. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014. Appendix G.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mohrbacher N, Kendall-Tackett K, Newman J. Breastfeeding made simple: seven natural laws for nursing mothers. 2nd ed: New Harbringer Publications, Inc; 2010.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Breastfeeding Program. Arizona Department of Health Services. http://www.azdhs.gov/prevention/nutrition-physical-activity/breastfeeding/index.php#providers-normal. Accessed September 29, 2017.
  43. 43.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Bright futures: nutrition issues and concerns. Elk Grove Village: Bright Futures; 2011. p. 113–219. https://brightfutures.aap.org/Bright%20Futures%20Documents/BFNutrition3rdEdition_issuesConcerns.pdf. Accessed October 2, 2017.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Berens P, Labbok M. The academy of breastfeeding medicine. ABM clinical protocol #13: contraception during breastfeeding, revised 2015. Breastfeed Med. 2015;10(1):3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    DiMaggio DM, Cox A, Porto AF. Updates in infant nutrition. Pediatr Rev. 2017;38:449–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Bright futures: nutrition supervision. Elk Grove Village: Bright Futures; 2011. p. 17–111. https://brightfutures.aap.org/Bright%20Futures%20Documents/BFNutrition3rdEditionSupervision.pdf. Accessed October 2, 2017.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bunik M. The Pediatrician’s role in encouraging exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatr Rev. 2017;38(8):353–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Amount and Schedule of Formula Feedings. Healthychildren.org https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/feeding-nutrition/Pages/Amount-and-Schedule-of-Formula-Feedings.aspx. Updated November 21, 2015. Accessed November 9, 2017.

Additional Resources for Provider Education

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/index.htm.
  2. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocols: http://www.bfmed.org/Resources/Protocols.aspx.
  3. Videos from the International Breastfeeding Centre: https://ibconline.ca/breastfeeding-videos-english/.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General Pediatrics, Cohen Children’s Medical Center and Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/NorthwellNew Hyde ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations