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Vertical Access

  • Andreas Ladner
  • Nicolas Keuffer
  • Harald Baldersheim
  • Nikos Hlepas
  • Pawel Swianiewicz
  • Kristof Steyvers
  • Carmen Navarro
Chapter
Part of the Governance and Public Management book series (GPM)

Abstract

This chapter scrutinises access as the entrance mechanisms local authorities dispose of towards their upper tiers of government. Apparent in much of the literature on intergovernmental relations conceptual consensus emerges on the existence of two main modes of vertical linkage: a direct and individual variant and an indirect and institutionalised counterpart. Empirically, this chapter concentrates on the latter form. Our measure determines the absence or presence of access through consultation and/or representation further distinguishing limited from substantial influence on higher-level policy-making. Our analysis shows that over time access has overall increased with a surge in a rather limited time frame. As general evolutions conceal similarities and differences between and/or within particular countries, we subsequently discuss the (evolving) scores for access of the latter, discerning between high, medium and low with(out) changes. Ultimately, two main trends stand out. The first is that by the end of our reference period in every country some form of consultation and/or representation existed. The second is an incremental and positive shift in the amount of influence on higher-level government policy-making. In many instances, consultation of local authorities’ associations is now routinised and/or their representation in intergovernmental forums institutionalised.

Keywords

Vertical access Intergovernmental linkage Local authorities’ associations Local authorities’ consultation Local authorities’ representation Local authorities’ influence 

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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Ladner
    • 1
  • Nicolas Keuffer
    • 1
  • Harald Baldersheim
    • 2
  • Nikos Hlepas
    • 3
  • Pawel Swianiewicz
    • 4
  • Kristof Steyvers
    • 5
  • Carmen Navarro
    • 6
  1. 1.IDHEAPUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  4. 4.Department of Local Development and Policy, Faculty of Geography and Regional StudiesUniversity of WarsawWarszawaPoland
  5. 5.Department of Political ScienceGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  6. 6.Department of Political ScienceUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

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