Protecting Filipino Overseas Migrant Workers
The Philippines has a large, diverse, and highly trained workforce. Yet a high proportion of skilled Filipinos leave their home country, seeking opportunities in other countries. The Philippines has become one of the top exporters of labor in the world. Common destination countries are in the Middle East and East Asia regions. Filipinos tend to migrate to other countries due to the prospect of higher salaries than in the Philippines, enabling a means of family advancement by sending remittances back home. Remittances now compete with overseas aid in terms of financial inflow to a country. However, overseas workers are highly vulnerable to exploitation by their employers and can often face mental, physical, and sexual abuse. In response to this issue, the government of the Philippines developed national agencies and a multitude of programs designed to protect overseas Filipino workers from exploitation, including legal protection and advocacy. Although imperfect, the Philippines is recognized as a pioneer in the development of policies to protect the welfare of its workforce abroad.
KeywordsRemittances Overseas employment Migration crisis Philippines Rights-based Migrants Workers
- Abella, M. (1976). Export of Filipino manpower: A question of competitive advantage. Philippine Labor Review, 1(2), 89–94.Google Scholar
- Asis, M.M.B. (2017). Beyond labor migration toward development and (possibly) return. Retrieved February 25, 2018, from https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/philippines-beyond-labor-migration-toward-development-and-possibly-return.
- Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). (2016). Statistics. Retrieved December 20, 2017, from http://www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/efs_ext3.asp.
- Battistella, G. (1992). Philippine labor migration: impact and policy. Quezon City: Scalabrini Migration Center.Google Scholar
- BBC News. (2018). Joanna Demafelis: Employers of Filipina maid found dead in freezer arrested. Retrieved March 18, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-43177349.
- Berlinger, J., & Jorgio, J. (2018). Killing prompts return of Philippines workers from Kuwait. Retrieved February 24, 2018, from https://www.cnn.com/2018/02/13/asia/philippines-domestic-workers-intl/index.html.
- Center for Migrant Advocacy. (2016). Protection of OFWs, especially domestic workers, urgently needed. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://globalnation.inquirer.net/141983/protection-of-ofws-especially-domestic-workers-urgently-needed#ixzz56sgtsnHr.
- Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2016). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved February April 11, 2018, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
- Chavez, J. J., & Piper, N. (2015). The reluctant leader: The Philippine journey from labor export to championing a rights-based approach to overseas employment. In E. Berman & S. Haque (Eds.), Asian leadership in policy and governance (public policy and governance, Volume 24) (pp. 305–344). Wagon Lane, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coronel, S. (2001). The media, the market, and democracy: The case of the Philippines. The Public, 8(2), 109–126.Google Scholar
- Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). (2016). Directory—Philippine overseas labor offices. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from https://www.dole.gov.ph/pages/view/24.
- Ducanes, G., & Abella, M. (2008). Overseas Filipino workers and their impact on household poverty. International Labour Organization (ILO) Working paper no.8. International Labour Office; ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Asian Regional Programme on Governance of Labour Migration, Bangkok.Google Scholar
- International Labour Organization (ILO). (2010). International labour migration: A rights based approach. Retrieved April 11, 2018, from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/%2D%2D-ed_protect/%2D%2D-protrav/%2D%2D-migrant/documents/publication/wcms_208594.pdf.
- International Labour Organization (ILO). (2015). Return and reintegration to the Philippines: An information guide for migrant Filipino health workers. Retrieved February 24, 2018, from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/%2D%2D-asia/%2D%2D-ro-bangkok/%2D%2D-ilo-manila/documents/publication/wcms_367738.pdf.
- International Organisation for Migration (IOM). (2012). IOM migration crisis operational framework. Retrieved December 20, 2017, from https://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/What-We-Do/docs/MC2355_-_IOM_Migration_Crisis_Operational_Framework.pdf.
- MacGeown, K. (2011). Philippines bans its workers from 41 countries. BBC News. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15561596.
- National Economic and Development Authority. (2017). Philippines development plan 2017-2022. Retrieved February 25, 2018, from http://pdp.neda.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/PDP-2017-2022-07-20-2017.pdf.
- Orbeta, A. Jr. & Abrigo, M. (2011). Managing international labor migration: The Philippine experience. Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) Discussion Paper Series 2011-33. Retrieved December 4, 2017, from https://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/webportal/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidspjd11-philippines.pdf.
- Orbeta, A. Jr., Abrigo, M., Cabalfin, M. (2009). Institutions serving Philippine international labor migrants. Philippine Institute for Development Studies Discussion Paper Series no. 2009-31. Retrieved December 22, 2017, from https://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/ris/dps/pidsdps0931.pdf.
- Pernia, E. (2011). Is labour export good development policy? The Philippine Review of Economics, 48(1), 13–34.Google Scholar
- Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) (2015). OFW Statistics. Retrieved December 22, 2017, from http://www.poea.gov.ph/ofwstat/ofwstat.html.
- Philippine Star. (2017). In charts: How the Philippines fares in Southeast Asia. Philippine Star. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://beta.philstar.com/headlines/2017/11/11/1757872/charts-how-philippines-fares-southeast-asia#k8orDo7KWWXIYbpd.99.
- Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). (2016). Survey of Overseas Filipinos 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2017, from https://psa.gov.ph/content/statistical-tables-overseas-filipino-workers-ofw-2016.
- Republic Act 8042. (1995). Migrant workers and overseas Filipinos Act of 1995. Manila.Google Scholar
- Rey, A. (2018). Philippines bans workers' deployment to Kuwait. Rappler. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://www.rappler.com/nation/195827-philippines-total-deployment-ban-ofws-kuwait.
- Reyes, R.R. (2017). Property sector to sustain growth momentum in 2017. Business Mirror. Retrieved January 3, 2018, from https://businessmirror.com.ph/property-sector-sustain-growth-momentum-2017/.
- Sayres, N.J. (2007). An analysis of the situation of Filipino domestic workers. Geneva: International Labor Organization. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@asia/@ro-bangkok/@ilo-manila/documents/publication/wcms_124895.pdf.
- Schmetzer, U. (1995). Anger at maid's death abroad now Shakes Filipino Oligarchy. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1995-04-06/news/9504060181_1_flor-contemplacion-filipino-saudi-arabia.
- Shenon, P. (1995). Filipinos protest Singapore death sentence. The New York Times. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/16/world/filipinos-protest-singapore-death-sentence.html.
- Tan, L. (2018). Jail, home detention for Filipino restaurateurs over exploitation of workers in Auckland. New Zealand Herald. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=11990563.
- Tigno, J. (2013). Gendered protection and care: Pre-departure orientation for migrant women from the Philippines. In J. Tigno (Ed.), Interrogating migration: New questions and emerging trends in the Philippines (pp. 151–182). Quezon City: Philippine Migration Research Network and Philippine Social Science Council.Google Scholar
- Torres, E. (2017). What will it take to protect Filipino domestic workers from abuse and exploitation in the Middle East?. Equal Times. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from https://www.equaltimes.org/what-will-it-take-to-protect?lang=en#.WoFIsK6Wbcs.
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2016). Human development report. Retrieved April 11, 2018, from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf.
- Vines, S. (1995). Philippines set for `innocent' verdict on hanged maid. Independent. Retrieved February 12, 2018, from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/philippines-set-for-innocent-verdict-on-hanged-maid-1613888.html.
- World Bank. (2017). Migrating to opportunity: Overcoming barriers to labor mobility in Southeast Asia. Retrieved February 23, 2018, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/region/eap/publication/migrating-to-opportunity-overcoming-barriers-to-labor-mobility-in-southeast-asia.
- World Health Organisation (WHO). (2015). Retrieved April 11, 2018, from http://www.who.int/countries/en/.