Advertisement

Measurement of Residual Stresses in Thin-Sheet Welded Constructions of Low-Alloyed Steel

  • E. P. Nikolaeva
  • A. Yu. Nikolaev
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)

Abstract

The concentrated heat source causes strong local heating of the metal during arc welding. The molten metal is cooled comparatively quickly. Its volume is reduced during solidification, shrinkage occurs and the density of the weld seam metal increases. During welding, the molten and solid metals are inseparable. During solidification in the weld seam metal and the heat-affected zone, changes of the microstructure take place that influence the nature of the distribution, the sign and value of residual stresses. Longitudinal and transverse internal stresses occur. When the stress value reaches the yield limit, plastic deformation occurs in the metal, and the shape and dimensions of the workpiece changes. Adverse tensile residual stresses reduce the vibration strength of welded constructions. The weld seam stresses differ in the gradient and complex nature of the distribution in different directions. The influence of residual stresses on the fatigue resistance will be different for various areas of a welded joint. Simulation and calculation methods do not accurately determine the value of residual stresses. The article presents the technique of residual stress measurement by an X-ray diffraction method. Residual stresses were directly determined on the surface of the weld seams. Single butt welds and single bevel butt welds of low-alloyed sheet steel with 0.9% C-2% Mn-0.8% Si have been investigated. The stress tensor at different sites of welded joints was calculated. The results demonstrate the influence of nonequilibrium crystallization on the nature of residual stresses formation. The interrelation between residual stresses and structural transformations occurring in the weld metal was shown.

Keywords

Butt weld Residual stresses Stress tensor X-ray diffractometer 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the staff of the laboratory “Study of technological residual stresses and deformations” of National Research Irkutsk Technical University for supporting this research and their contribution to conducting the experiments.

References

  1. 1.
    Zamashchikov YI (2006) Duality in metal cutting: impact to the surface layer residual stress. Mater Manuf Proc 21:551–566.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10426910500471706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zamashchikov YI (2014) Surface residual stress measurements by layer removal method. Int J Mach Machinability Mater 16:187–211.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMMM.2014.067307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zamashchikov YI (2007) Machining residual stresses and part distortions. Int J Mach Machinability Mater 2:378–412.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMMM.2007.015473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zamachtchikov YI, Breaban F, Vantomme P, Deffontaine A (2002) Method to evaluate residual stresses in laser cutting process. Int J Laser Eng 12:27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tolstikhin K (2017) An approach to differentiation of non-smooth functions obtained during residual stress measurements by layer-removal method. J Eng Math 103:87–95.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10665-016-9862-xMathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nikolaeva EP, Nikulin DS (2016) The application of innovative means for quality control of the high-speed steel tools. MTSAM 50:73–80Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nikolaeva EP (2013) Application the Barkhausen noises method for control the hardening of details by superficial plastic deformation Izv. SSC RAS 15:428–431Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nikolaeva EP, Vlasov DB (2017) Effect of heat treatment conditions on structure and properties of high-speed steel. IOP Conf Ser Mater. Sci Eng 177:012113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nikolaeva E, Gridasova E, Gerasimov V (2015) The application of X-ray diffraction and Barkhausen noise for studying of shot peened constructional steel 30HGS Izv. SSC RAS 17:125–132Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nikolaeva EP (2016) Structure investigation of the constructional steel St3 ps after Argon-Arc Plasma treatment. In: Radionov AA (ed) Mater Sci Forum 870:500–506Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nikolaeva EP, Mashukov AN (2017) Evaluation of residual stresses in high-pressure valve seat surfacing. Chem Pet Eng 53:459–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nikolaeva E, Mashukov A (2017) Evaluation of residual stresses in lock valve elements of petrochemical productions. MATEC Web Conf Int Conf Mod Trends Manuf Technol Equip (ICMTMTE) 129:06006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sorsa A, Leiviska K (2011) Simultaneous prediction of residual stress and hardness based on the Barkhausen noise measurements. NDT World Rev 4:78–83Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Totten G, Howes M, Inoue T (2002) Handbook of residual stress and deformation of steel. ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA, p 500Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Viktor Hauk (1997) Structural and residual stress analysis by nondestructive methods: evaluation, application, assessment. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science BV, 640ppGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Molzen MS, Hornbach D (2000) Evaluation of welding residual stress levels through shot peening and heat treating. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, pp. 1–7. http://www.lambdatechs.com/documents/273.pdf
  17. 17.
    Yablokova NA (2012) X-ray structure analysis technique for stress-and-strain state analysis of compressor blades made of VT3-1 alloy. NDT World Rev 4:42–44Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yablokova NA, Trofimov VV (2013) XRA study of the stress-strain state of the compressor blades. Zavodskaya Laboratoriya. Diagnostika Materialov 1:36–44Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Makaruk AA, Khamaganov AM, Pashkov AA, Samoilenko OV (2017) Studying stress state under high rigidity parts peen processing Proc Irkutsk State Tech Univ 21(4):39–46 (in Russian).  https://doi.org/10.21285/1814-3520-2017-4-39-46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nikolaev AY (2017) Simulation of the plain milling process. Int Conf Mech Eng Autom Control Syst. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/177/1/012080/pdf
  21. 21.
    Cheslavskaya AA, Mironenko VV, Kolesnikov AV, Maksimenko NV, Kotov VV (2015) Choosing an efficient method for forming parts by means of an engineering analysis performed with the use of a CAE system. Metallurgist 58:1051–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mironenko VV, Polyakova OE, Sechkarenko DA (2016) Accounting for the technological history of the formation of a part in strength calculations. Metallurgist 59:871–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cheslavskaya AA, Mironenko VV, Bersenev SA, Kotov VV (2013) Forming of tee parts by a process that combines diffusion welding and pneumothermal forming in the superplastic regime. Metallurgist 56:899–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mironenko VV, Polyakova OE, Sechkarenko DA, Kotov VV (2016) Accounting for the technological history of the formation of a part in strength calculations. Metallurgist 59:1015–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Irkutsk National Research Technical UniversityIrkutskRussia

Personalised recommendations