Advertisement

Introduction

  • Erum Akbar Hussain
  • Zubi Sadiq
  • Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq
Chapter

Abstract

Man is always fascinated with colors, especially when edibles are under consideration; we are all captivated with colorful foods. Betalain is one of the important natural pigments of the food industry and safe from the health point of view. Due to inextensive research in chemistry, biosynthesis and ecophysiological factors affecting betalain accumulation and evocation in situ/ex situ for its improved production were for the first time calculated by its annual production potential estimation, and relevant future study was attempted [1]. Betalains are named as caryophyll in enroth/rubenroth/chromo-alkaloids that are polar, hydrophilic nitrogenous pigments which mainly exist in most plants of Caryophyllales order [2, 3]. It is derived from Beta vulgaris from which its extraction was done for the first time and well recognized as a chief natural source. Beetroot is the main part of plant which has enormous quantity of betalain than any other part. The presence of carboxylic acid is responsible for the acidic nature of this important bioactive molecule, which is why it is not included in alkaloids [3]. The earliest chemically identified betalains were thought to be anthocyanins till 1957 or nitrogenous anthocyanins more incisively [1] because the biological functions of anthocyanins were replaced by these nitrogenous compounds in plants [4]. This term incorrectly suggested structural resemblance between the two pigment classes: both betaxanthine and anthocyanin [5].

References

  1. 1.
    Khan, M. I., & Giridhar, P. (2015). Plant betalains: Chemistry and biochemistry. Phytochemistry, 117, 267–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gandía-Herrero, F., Escribano, J., & García-Carmona, F. (2016). Biological activities of plant pigments betalains. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56(6), 937–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Delgado-Vargas, F., Jiménez, A. R., & Paredes-López, O. (2000). Natural pigments: Carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains—Characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 40(3), 173–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hatlestad, G. J., & Lloyd, A. (2015). Pigments in fruits and vegetables. Genomics and dietetics. Network: Springer Chapter 6 The Betalain Secondary Metabolic pages.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jain, G., & Gould, K. S. (2015). Are betalain pigments the functional homologues of anthocyanins in plants? Environmental and Experimental Botany, 119, 48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Strack, D., Vogt, T., & Schliemann, W. (2003). Recent advances in betalain research. Phytochemistry, 62, 247–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Esatbeyoglu, T., Wagner, A. E., Schini-Kerth, V. B., & Rimbach, G. (2015). Betanin—A food colorant with biological activity. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 59(1), 36–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Herbach, K. M., Stintzing, F. C., & Carle, R. (2006). Betalain stability and degradation—Structural and chromatic aspects. Journal of Food Science, 71(4), R41–R50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hughes, N. M., & Lev-Yadun, S. (2015). Red/purple leaf margin coloration: Potential ecological and physiological functions. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 119, 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davies, K., Zryd, J. P., & Christinet, L. (2004). Plant pigments and their manipulation, Annual Plant Reviews, 14. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Chapter 6 Betalains pages.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pavokovi, D., & Rasol, M. K. (2011). Complex biochemistry and biotechnological production of betalains. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 49(2), 145–155.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tanaka, Y., Sasaki, N., & Ohmiya, A. (2008). Biosynthesis of plant pigments: Anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids. The Plant Journal, 54, 733–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gandía-Herrero, F., & García-Carmona, F. (2013). Biosynthesis of betalains: Yellow and violet plant pigments. Trends in Plant Science, 18(6), 334–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gengatharan, A., Dykes, G. A., & Sim-Choo, W. (2015). Betalains: Natural plant pigments with potential application in functional foods. Food Science and Technology, 64, 645–649.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Delgado-Vargas, F., & Paredes-López, O. (2002). Natural colorants for food and nutraceutical uses. Boca Raton: CRC press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clement, J. S., & Mabry, T. J. (1996). Pigment evolution in the Caryophyllales: A systematic overview. Plant Biology, 109(5), 360–367.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erum Akbar Hussain
    • 1
  • Zubi Sadiq
    • 1
  • Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq
    • 1
  1. 1.Lahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations