• Rasel DasEmail author
Part of the Carbon Nanostructures book series (CARBON)


Water pollution has become one of the major twenty-first century problems. Therefore, pollutants in wastewater are necessary to attenuate through various processes. But classical wastewater treatment methods have been facing a range of limitations as they are operationally intensives and depend on large system which urges high capital costs cum engineering expertise. Very recently, carbon nanotube (CNT) has been introduced to improve classical wastewater treatment methods. This chapter summarizes the uses of CNT either as water purification material by themselves or along with other materials as nanocomposite for water treatment.

References and Future Readings

  1. 1.
    WWAP: The United Nations World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water Under Uncertainty and Risk. UNESCO, Paris (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    WWAP: The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. UNESCO/ Earthscan, Paris/London, (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    WHO, UNICEF: Progress on sanitation and drinking-water-2013 update: joint monitoring programme for water supply and sanitation. (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    UN: The Report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. UN, New York (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    UN: Water Scarcity. UN (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    UN-News: Ban Ki-moon warns that water shortages are increasingly driving conflicts (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilson, J.: Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies: Global Markets. (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Monthioux, M., Kuznetsov, V.L.: Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes? Carbon 44, 1621–1623 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iijima, S.: Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354, 56–58 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhao, Y.L., Stoddart, J.F.: Noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1161–1171 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Su, D.S., Perathoner, S., Centi, G.: Nanocarbons for the development of advanced catalysts. Chem. Rev. 113, 5782–5816 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keller, A.A., McFerran, S., Lazareva, A., Suh, S.: Global life cycle releases of engineered nanomaterials. J. Nanopart. Res. 15, 1–17 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Adeleye, A.S., Conway, J.R., Garner, K., Huang, Y., Su, Y., Keller, A.A.: Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: Costs, benefits, and applicability. Chem. Eng. J. 286, 640–662 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Upadhyayula, V.K.K., Deng, S.G., Mitchell, M.C., Smith, G.B.: Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: a review. Sci. Total Environ. 408, 1–13 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rao, G.P., Lu, C., Su, F.: Sorption of divalent metal ions from aqueous solution by carbon nanotubes: a review. Sep. Purif. Technol. 58, 224–231 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ali, M., Das, R., Maamor, A., Hamid, S.B.A.: Multifunctional Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs): a new dimension in environmental remediation. Adv. Mater. Res. 832, 328–332 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qu, X.L., Alvarez, P.J.J., Li, Q.L.: Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment. Water Res. 47, 3931–3946 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Das, R.: Nanohybrid Catalyst based on Carbon Nanotube: A Step-By-Step Guideline from Preparation to Demonstration. Springer, Berlin (2017)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Das, R., Ali, M.E., Abd Hamid, S.B., Ramakrishna, S., Chowdhury, Z.Z.: Carbon nanotube membranes for water purification: a bright future in water desalination. Desalination 336, 97–109 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maas, M.: Carbon nanomaterials as antibacterial colloids. Materials 9, 617 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McCreery, R.L.: Advanced carbon electrode materials for molecular electrochemistry. Chem. Rev. 108, 2646–2687 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keller, A.A., Lazareva, A.: Predicted releases of engineered nanomaterials: from global to regional to local. Environ. Sci. Tech. Lett. 1, 65–70 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sadiq, R., Rodriguez, M.J.: Disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water and predictive models for their occurrence: a review. Sci. Total Environ. 321, 21–46 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    US-EPA: Risk Assessment, Management and Communication of Drinking Water Contamination. Washington, DC (1989)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Díaz-González, M., Gutiérrez-Capitán, M., Niu, P., Baldi, A., Jiménez-Jorquera, C., Fernández-Sánchez, C.: Electrochemical devices for the detection of priority pollutants listed in the EU water framework directive, TrAC. Trends Anal. Chem. 77, 186–202 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    US-EPA: Final 2014 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan and 2014 Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report. (2014)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aragay, G., Pino, F., Merkoci, A.: Nanomaterials for sensing and destroying pesticides. Chem. Rev. 112, 5317–5338 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Institute for Surface EngineeringLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations