Hybrid Imaging in Non-thyroidal Endocrinological Disorders

  • Duccio VolterraniEmail author
  • Federica Guidoccio
  • Giuliano Mariani


Adrenal glands are two organs of the endocrine system that secrete different types of hormones. They are located in the retroperitoneal space, surrounded by a thick fibrous capsule, placed immediately below the diaphragm, superiorly and medially to the kidneys, between the 12th thoracic and the 1st lumbar vertebra. They have a cone shape with an inferior base, a weight of about 8 g, and sizes of about 2–3 cm in width and 4–6 cm in length. They are richly vascularized, innervated by the autonomous system, mainly through the adrenal plexus. Each adrenal consists of two distinct parts: a peripheral part, called adrenal cortex, and a central part, called adrenal medulla.


Adrenal glands Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Radionuclide imaging of adrenal cortex 131I-6-β-iodo-methyl-norcholesterol Radionuclide imaging of adrenal cortex 75Se-6-β-seleno-methyl-norcholesterol Cushing’s syndrome Cushing’s disease Hyperaldosteronism Hyperandrogenism Adrenal incidentalomas Radionuclide imaging of adrenal medulla Meta-iodobenzylguanidine 111In-pentetreotide Pheochromocytoma 18F-DOPA [18F]FDG Parathyroid glands Primary hyperparathyroidism Secondary hyperparathyroidism Tertiary hyperparathyroidism 99mTc-Sestamibi 123I-iodide 99mTc-Pertechnetate 18F-fluorochholine Double-tracer subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy Single-tracer dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Duccio Volterrani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Federica Guidoccio
    • 1
  • Giuliano Mariani
    • 1
  1. 1.Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Translational Research and Advanced Technologies in Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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