Advertisement

Hybrid Imaging for Tumours of the Chest

  • Roberto C. Delgado Bolton
  • Adriana K. Calapaquí Terán
Chapter

Abstract

Lung cancer (LC) is a fairly common malignancy. Cancer stage at diagnosis, which refers to the extent of a cancer in the body, determines treatment options and has a strong influence on the length of survival. Diagnostic imaging for patients with lung cancer includes, among other imaging tests, CT and [18F]FDG PET. Integrated PET/CT systems have greatly changed the management algorithms of oncologic patients and have completely changed the paradigm of oncologic imaging. [18F]FDG PET/CT has been extensively studied in lung cancer and there is evidence showing its utility in patient management decisions. Furthermore, personalised medicine is based on tailoring treatments to the individual patient, in order to increase the probability of cure and at the same time reduce the probability of unnecessary secondary effects. For this reason, it is of utmost importance to have tools that provide an early and precise assessment of response to therapy. Early assessment of response to therapy can help tailor treatments in order to continue treatments in responding patients, and discontinue treatments and change to second-line treatments in non-responders. Current evidence in this setting shows that the [18F]FDG PET/CT response is probably earlier and more accurate than the CT response.

Keywords

Lung cancer NSCLC SCLC Mesothelioma Thymoma Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) PET PET/CT [18F]FDG imaging in lung cancer Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy 68Ga-DOTA-TOC 68Ga-DOTA-NOC 68Ga-DOTA-TATE Bone scintigraphy Staging of lung and mediastinal tumours Personalised medicine Assessment of response to treatment RECIST PERCIST Theragnostics Radionuclide therapy of NENs 

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    American Cancer Society. Detailed guide: lung cancer non-small cell. What is non small cell lung cancer? American Cancer Society; 2010.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Langer CJ, Besse B, Gualberto A, Brambilla E, Soria JC. The evolving role of histology in the management of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:5311–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ambrosini V, Nicolini S, Caroli P, Nanni C, Massaro A, Marzola MC, et al. PET/CT imaging in different types of lung cancer: an overview. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:988–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Travis WD, Brambilla E, Noguchi M, Nicholson AG, Geisinger KR, Yatabe Y, et al. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol. 2011;6:244–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kut V, Spies W, Spies S, Gooding W, Argiris A. Staging and monitoring of small cell lung cancer using [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Am J Clin Oncol. 2007;30:45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Divisi D, Di Tommaso S, Di Leonardo G, Brianzoni E, De Vico A, Crisci R. 18-Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computerized tomography versus computerized tomography alone for the management of solitary lung nodules with diameters inferior to 1.5 cm. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:422–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agarwal M, Brahmanday G, Bajaj SK, Ravikrishnan KP, Wong CGO. Revisiting the prognostic value of preoperative 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in early-stage (I & II) non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:691–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pommier P, Touboul E, Chabaud S, Dussart S, Le Pechoux C, Giammarile F, Carrie C. Impact of 18F-FDG PET on treatment strategy and 3D radiotherapy planning in non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective multicenter study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195:350–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Cabanyes Candela S, Detterbeck FC. A systematic review of restaging after induction therapy for stage IIIa lung cancer: prediction of pathologic stage. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:389–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fischer BM, Mortensen J, Langer SW, Loft A, Berthelsen AK, Daugaard G, et al. PET/CT imaging in response evaluation of patients with small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2006;54:41–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schreyögg J, Weller J, Stargardt T, Herrmann K, Bluemel C, Dechow T, et al. Cost–effectiveness of hybrid PET/CT for staging of non-small cell lung cancer. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:1668–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bozkurt MF, Virgolini I, Bagolova S, Beheshti M, Rubello D, Decristoforo C, et al. Guideline for PET/CT imaging in neuroendocrine neoplasms with 68Ga-DOTA-conjugated somatostatin receptor targeting peptides and 18F-DOPA. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;44:1588–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Giammarile F, Muylle K, Delgado Bolton R, Kunikowska J, Haberkorn U, Oyen U. Dosimetry in clinical radionuclide therapy: the devil is in the detail. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-017-3820-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Delgado-Bolton RC, Fernández-Pérez C, González-Maté A, Carreras JL. Meta-analysis of the performance of 18F-FDG PET in primary tumor detection in unknown primary tumors. J Nucl Med. 2003;44:1301–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    García Vicente AM, Delgado-Bolton RC, Amo-Salas M, López-Fidalgo J, Caresia Aroztegui AP, García Garzón JR, et al. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis of malignancy in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;44:1575–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Van den Wyngaert T, Strobel K, Kampen WU, Kuwet T, van der Bruggen W, Mohan HK, et al. The EANM practice guidelines for bone scintigraphy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43:1723–38.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Inoue T, Kim EE, Komaki R, Wong FC, Bassa P, Wong WH, et al. Detecting recurrent or residual lung cancer with FDG-PET. J Nucl Med. 1995;36:788–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sudarski S, Henzler T, Schoenberg SO. Post-therapeutic positron emission tomography/computed tomography for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer recurrence. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2013;2:295–303.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Caulo A, Mirsadraee S, Maggi F, Leccisotti L, van Beek EJ, Bonomo L. Integrated imaging of non-small cell lung cancer recurrence: CT and PET-CT findings, possible pitfalls and risk of recurrence criteria. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:588–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jiménez-Ballvé A, Pérez-Castejón MJ, Delgado-Bolton RC, Sánchez-Enrique C, Vilacosta I, Vivas D, et al. Assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic infective endocarditis and cardiac implantable electronic device infection: comparison of different interpretation criteria. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;43:2401–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rubins J, Unger M, Colice GL, American College of Chest Physicians. Follow-up and surveillance of the lung cancer patient following curative intent therapy: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guideline (2nd edition). Chest. 2007;132:355S–67S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ponn RB. Lightning can strike twice: second primary lung cancers. Chest. 2000;118:1526–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jadvar H, Colletti P, Delgado-Bolton R, Esposito G, Krause BJ, Iagaru AH, et al. Appropriate use criteria for FDG PET/CT restaging and response assessment of malignant disease. J Nucl Med. 2017;58:2026–2037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boellaard R, Delgado-Bolton R, Oyen WJ, Giammarile F, Tatsch K, Eschner W, et al. FDG PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour imaging: version 2.0. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42:328–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Flechsig P, Mehndiratta A, Haberkorn U, Kratochwil C, Giesel FL. PET/MRI and PET/CT in lung lesions and thoracic malignancies. Semin Nucl Med. 2015;45:268–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bustos García de Castro A, Ferreiros Domínguez J, Delgado Bolton R, Fernández Pérez C, Cabeza Martínez B, García García-Esquinas M, Carreras Delgado JL. PET-CT in presurgical lymph node staging in non-small cell lung cancer: the importance of false-negative and false-positive findings. Radiologia. 2017;59:147–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Delgado Bolton RC, Izarduy LP, Carreras Delgado JL. Positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the evaluation of response to chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Rev. 2008;3:77–86.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Delgado Bolton RC, Carreras Delgado JL. Positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of response to therapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Curr Cancer Ther Rev. 2009;5:20–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    He YQ, Gong HL, Deng YF, Li WM. Diagnostic efficacy of PET and PET/CT for recurrent lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Acta Radiol. 2014;55:309–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Toba H, Sakiyama S, Otsuda H, Kawakami Y, Takizawa H, Kenzaki K, et al. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography is useful in postoperative follow-up of asymptomatic non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;15:859–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Choi SH, Kim YT, Kim SK, Kang KW, Goo JM, Kang CH, Kim JH. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography for postoperative surveillance in non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92:1826–32.. discussion 1832PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pastis NJ Jr, Greer TJ, Tanner NT, Wahlquist AE, Gordon LL, Sharma AK, et al. Assessing the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT scan after stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Chest. 2014;146:406–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang X, Liu H, Balter P, Allen PK, Komaki R, Pan T, et al. Positron emission tomography for assessing local failure after stereotactic body radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:1558–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Takeda A, Kunieda E, Fujii H, Yokosuka N, Aoki Y, Oooka Y, et al. Evaluation for local failure by 18F-FDG PET/CT in comparison with CT findings after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2013;79:248–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    van Loon J, Grutters J, Wanders R, Boersma L, Oellers M, Dingemans AM, et al. Follow-up with 18FDG-PET-CT after radical radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy allows the detection of potentially curable progressive disease in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a prospective study. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:588–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoopes DJ, Tann M, Fletcher JW, Forquer JA, Lin PF, Lo SS, et al. FDG-PET and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2007;56:229–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yoo DC, Dupuy DE, Hillman SL, Fernando HC, Rilling WS, Shepard JA, Siegel BA. Radiofrequency ablation of medically ioneperable stage IA non-small cell lung cancer: are early posttreatment PET findings predictive of treatment outcome? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197:334–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pou Ucha JL, Nogueiras Alonso JM, Alvarez Paez AM, Suárez Arfenoni BA, Puig AS, López Lopez AM, et al. Diagnostic yield of baseline and follow-up PET/CT studies in ablative therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol. 2012;31:301–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jiménez-Bonilla JF, Quirce R, Martínez-Rodríguez I, Banzo I, Rubio-Vassallo AS, Del Castillo-Matos R, et al. Diagnosis of recurrence and assessment of post-recurrence survival in patients with extracranial non-small cell lung cancer evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Lung Cancer. 2013;81:71–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bojarski JD, Dupuy DE, Mayo-Smith WW. CT imaging findings of pulmonary neoplasms after treatment with radiofrequency ablation: results in 32 tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185:466–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Colt HG, Murgu SD, Korst RJ, Slatore CG, Unger M, Quadrelli S. Follow-up and surveillance of the patient with lung cancer after curative-intent therapy: diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2013;143(5_Suppl):e437S–54S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cuaron J, Dunphy M, Rimner A. Role of FDG-PET scans in staging, response assessment, and follow-up care for non-small cell lung cancer. Front Oncol. 2012;2:208.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2012.00208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Beland MD, Wasser EJ, Mayo-Smith WW, Dupuy DE. Primary non-small cell lung cancer: review of frequency, location, and time of recurrence after radiofrequency ablation. Radiology. 2010;254:301–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eradat J, Abtin F, Gutierrez A, Suh R. Evaluation of treatment response after nonoperative therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma. Cancer J. 2011;17:38–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    van Loon J, Grutters JP, Wanders R, Boersma L, Dingemans AM, Bootsma G, et al. 18FDG-PET-CT in the follow-up of non-small cell lung cancer patients after radical radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy: an economic evaluation. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:110–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Quint LE. Staging non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2007;7:148–59.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yun M, Kim W, Alnafisi N, Lacorte L, Jang S, Alavi A. 18F-FDG PET in characterizing adrenal lesions detected on CT or MRI. J Nucl Med. 2001;42:1795–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gupta NC, Graeber GM, Tamim WJ, Rogers JS, Irisari L, Bishop HA. Clinical utility of PET-FDG imaging in differentiation of benign from malignant adrenal masses in lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2001;3:59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kumar R, Xiu Y, Yu JQ, Takalkar A, El-Haddad G, Potenta S, et al. 18F-FDG PET in evaluation of adrenal lesions in patients with lung cancer. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:2058–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu T, Xu JY, Xu W, Bai YR, Yan WL, Yang HL. Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bone metastases in patients with lung cancer: which one is the best? A meta-analysis. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2011;23:350–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cheran SK, Herndon JE, Patz EF. Comparison of whole-body FDG-PET to bone scan for detection of bone metastases in patients with a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2004;44:317–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Min JW, Um SW, Yim JJ, Yoo CG, Han SK, Shim YS, Kim YW. The role of whole-body FDG PET/CT, Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy, and serum alkaline phosphatase in detecting bone metastasis in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:275–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Xu G, Zhao L, He Z. Performance of whole-body PET/CT for the detection of distant malignancies in various cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Nucl Med. 2012;53:1847–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cerfolio RJ, Ojha B, Bryant AS, Raghuveer V, Mountz JM, Bartolucci AA. The accuracy of integrated PET-CT compared with dedicated PET alone for the staging of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78:1017–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fischer BM, Mortensen J, Langer SW, Loft A, Berthelsen AK, Petersen BI, et al. A prospective study of PET/CT in initial staging of small-cell lung cancer: comparison with CT, bone scintigraphy and bone marrow analysis. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:338–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ohno Y, Koyama H, Onishi Y, Takenaka D, Nogami M, Yoshikawa T, et al. Non-small cell lung cancer: whole-body MR examination for M-stage assessment — utility for whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging compared with integrated FDG PET/CT. Radiology. 2008;248:643–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yi CA, Shin KM, Lee KS, Kim BT, Kim H, Kwon OJ, et al. Non-small cell lung cancer staging: efficacy comparison of integrated PET/CT versus 3.0-T whole-body MR imaging. Radiology. 2008;248:632–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Plathow C, Aschoff P, Lichy MP, Eschmann S, Hehr T, Brink I, et al. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in staging of advanced non small cell lung cancer: initial results. Investig Radiol. 2008;43:290–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Miller AB, Hoogstraten B, Staquet M, Winkler A. Reporting results of cancer treatment. Cancer. 1981;47:207–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Therasse P, Arbuck SG, Eisenhauer EA, Wanders J, Kaplan RS, Rubinstein L, et al. New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of the United States, National Cancer Institute of Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:205–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vansteenkiste J, Fischer BM, Dooms C, Mortensen J. Positron-emission tomography in prognostic and therapeutic assessment of lung cancer: systematic review. Lancet Oncol. 2004;5:531–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(04)01564-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Margaritora S, Cesario A, Galetta D, D'Andrilli A, Macis G, Mantini G, et al. Ten year experience with induction therapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): is clinical re-staging predictive of pathological staging? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2001;19:894–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS, Ojha B. Restaging patients with N2 (stage IIIa) non-small cell lung cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a prospective study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131:1229–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Detterbeck F, Socinski M. C. In: Detterbeck F, Socinski M, Rivera M, Rosenman J, editors. Diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. An evidence-based guide for the practicing clinician. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 2001. p. 267–282.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bueno R, Richards W, Swanson S, Jaklitsch MT, Lukanich JM, Mentzer SJ, Sugarbaker DJ. Nodal stage after induction therapy for stage IIIA lung cancer determines patient survival. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70:1826–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Voltolini L, Luzzi L, Ghiribelli C, Paladini P, Di Bisceglie M, Gotti G. Results of induction chemotherapy followed by surgical resection in patients with stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer: the importance of the nodal down-staging after chemotherapy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2001;20:1106–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Komaki R, Cox JD, Hartz AJ, Byhardt RW, Perez-Tamayo C, Clowry L, et al. Characteristics of long-term survivors after treatment for inoperable carcinoma of the lung. Am J Clin Oncol. 1985;8:362–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mateu-Navarro M, Rami-Porta R, Bastus-Piulats R, Cirera-Nogueras L, GonzCález-Pont G. Remediastinoscopy after induction chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70:391–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pitz CC, Maass KW, Van Swieten HA, de la Rivière AB, Hofman P, Schramel FM. Surgery as part of combined modality treatment in stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74:164–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Van Schil P, van der Schoot J, Poniewierski J, Pauwels M, Carp L, Germonpré P, De Backer W. Remediastinoscopy after neoadjuvant therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2002;37:281–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wallace MB, Ravenel J, Block MI, Fraig M, Silvestri G, Wildi S, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound in lung cancer patients with a normal mediastinum on computed tomography. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:1763–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zhang C, Liu J, Tong J, Sun X, Song S, Huang G. 18F-FDG-PET evaluation of pathological tumour response to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with NSCLC. Nucl Med Commun. 2013;34:71–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Young H, Baum R, Cremerius U, Herholz K, Hoekstra O, Lammertsma AA, et al. Measurement of clinical and subclinical tumour response using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography: review and 1999 EORTC recommendations. European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC) PET study group. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35:1773–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Aide N, Fanti S. Therapy monitoring with PET in cancer patients: achievements, opportunities and challenges ahead for the PET community. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;44(Suppl 1):S1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pinker K, Riedl C, Weber WA. Evaluating tumor response with FDG PET: updates on PERCIST, comparison with EORTC criteria and clues to future developments. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017;44(Suppl 1):S55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    WHO handbook for reporting results of cancer treatment. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization; 1979.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Eisenhauer EA, Therasse P, Bogaerts J, Schwartz LH, Sargent D, Ford R, et al. New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:228–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Van den Abbeele AD, Badawi RD. Use of positron emission tomography in oncology and its potential role to assess response to imatinib mesylate therapy in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Eur J Cancer. 2002;38(Suppl 5):S60–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wahl RL, Jacene H, Kasamon Y, Lodge MA. From RECIST to PERCIST: evolving considerations for PET response criteria in solid tumors. J Nucl Med. 2009;50(Suppl 1):122S–50S.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Min SJ, Jang HJ, Kim JH. Comparison of the RECIST and PERCIST criteria in solid tumors: a pooled analysis and review. Oncotarget. 2016;7:27848–54.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ding Q, Cheng X, Yang L, Zhang Q, Chen J, Li T, et al. PET/CT evaluation of response to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: PET response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST) versus response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). J Thorac Dis. 2014;6:677–83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Frederickson J, Callahan J, Funke R, Sanabria S, Weber W, de Crespigny A, et al. Utility of FDG-PET in immunotherapy: results from a phase II study of NSCLC patients undergoing therapy with the PD-L1 inhibitor, atezolizumab (MPDL3280A). J Nucl Med. 2016;57(Suppl 2):134.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Robinson BW, Musk AW, Lake RA. Malignant mesothelioma. Lancet. 2005;366:397–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lopci E, Zucali PA, Ceresoli GL, Perrino M, Giordano L, Gianoncelli L, et al. Quantitative analyses at baseline and interim PET evaluation for response assessment and outcome definition in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015;42:667–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sugarbaker DJ, Flores RM, Jaklitsch MT, Richards WG, Strauss GM, Corson JM, et al. Resection margins, extrapleural nodal status, and cell type determine postoperative long-term survival in trimodality therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma: results in 183 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999;117:54–65.. discussion 63–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Byrne MJ, Nowak AK. Modified RECIST criteria for assessment of response in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Ann Oncol. 2004;15:257–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kitami A, Sano F, Ohashi S, Suzuki K, Uematsu S, Suzuki T, Kadokura M. The usefulness of positron emission tomography findings in the management of anterior mediastinal tumors. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;23:26–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Segreto S, Fonti R, Ottaviano M, Pellegrino S, Pace L, Damiano V, et al. Evaluation of metabolic response with 18F-FDG PET-CT in patients with advanced or recurrent thymic epithelial tumors. Cancer Imaging. 2017;17:10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40644-017-0112-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto C. Delgado Bolton
    • 1
  • Adriana K. Calapaquí Terán
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear MedicineUniversity Hospital San Pedro and Center for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR)LogroñoSpain
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla (HUMV)SantanderSpain

Personalised recommendations