Advertisement

Hormones

  • Bernard Faye
  • Mohammed Bengoumi
Chapter

Abstract

Hormones are a group of molecules produced by specific glandes (called endocrines), transported in the bloodstream to target distant organs where they regulate their physiology. By their action, they contribute to the regulation of metabolism and vital function including digestion, respiration, lactation, reproduction, sensory perception, nycthemeral rhythm, excretion, etc. The list of hormones with clinical interest in camel is similar to that in all mammals. In camel, the hormones contributed to the reproduction cycle. The seasonal physiology of reproduction in this species can be explained by the sexual hormones metabolism, notably in male where testosterone concentration in plasma is under complex seasonal influence. Thyroid hormones are also implied in the seasonal sexual activity. As easily stressed animal, camel is also sensitive to the hormones of the stress like cortisol. Other hormones are participating to the management of the fat storage (leptin) which is concentrated in the hump, a particularity of the species.

References

  1. Abdelrahman S (2010) Prevalence and pathology of nasal myiasis in camels slaughtered in El-Zawia province-Western Libya: with a reference to thyroid alteration and renal lipidosis. Global Vet 4(2):190–197Google Scholar
  2. Abdel Hadi AA, Wasfi IA, Osman MA, Boni NS (1998) Urinary testosterone equivalent levels in mature male and female Racing camels. In: Proceedings of the third annual meeting for animal production under arid conditions, United Arab Emirates University Publications, vol 1, pp 197–203Google Scholar
  3. Abdel Rahim SEA (1989) The use of milk progesterone analysis to monitor reproductive activity in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Br Vet J 145(1):23–27PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Abdel Rahim SEA, El-Nazier AE (1987) Estimation of progesterone level in camels’ (Camelus dromedarius) milk and its application in pregnancy diagnosis. Br Vet J 143(6):555–559PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Abdel-Fattah M, Amer H, Ghoneim MA, Warda M, Megahed Y (1999) Response of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) to intravenous glucagon injection and to infusion of glucose and volatile fatty acids, and the kinetic of glucagon disappearance from the blood. J Vet Med A 46:473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Abdel-Hadi AA, Wasfi AI (2001) 17β-Estradiol and testosterone level in post-racing plasma of mature female and male racing camels. Emir J Agric Sci 13:33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Abdel-Magied EM, Taha AA, Abdalla AB (2000) Light and electron microscopic study of the thyroid gland of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anat Histol Embryol 29:331–336PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Abdel-Wahab MF, Abdo MS, Megahed YM, El-Mougy SA (1974) Thyroxine content in the thyroid gland of domestic animals. Part VII. Iodinated tyrosines and thyronines in the serum of she-camel at various reproductive stages. Endocrinology 63(1):116–121Google Scholar
  9. Abdelsalam OA, Idris OF, Elbagir NM, Seri HI (2003) Effect of cymelarsan and T. evansi infection on thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) profile in female camels (Camelus dromedarius). In: Proceedings of the 7th science congress, Egyptian Society for cattle diseases, 7–9 Dec 2003. Assiut, Egypt, pp 330–333Google Scholar
  10. Abdoun KA, Alameen A, Elmagbol W, Makkawi T, Al-Haidary A (2010) Effects of hydration status on osmolarity and minerals profiles of serum and forestomach liquor in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 17(2):235–240Google Scholar
  11. Abdulkareem TA, Al-Rawi HM, Abdul-Rahaman YT (2015) Plasma profile of progesterone, estradiol-17β and some blood biochemical attributes during different gestation periods in Iraqi female dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Emir J Food Agric 27(8):643–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Abu-Damir H, Barri MES, Tageldin MH, Idris OF (1990) Clinical and subclinical colloid goiter in adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Kordofan region of Sudan. Br Vet J 146:219–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Achaaban MR, Forsling ML, Schroter RC, Oushine A (2002) The neurohypophyseal hormone profiles in camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 9(2):115–119Google Scholar
  14. Adamsons K, Stanford JR, Engel L, Van Dyke HB, Schmidt-Nielsen B, Schmidt-Nielsen K (1956) The distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) in the neurohypophysis of the camel. Endocrinology 58(2):272–278PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Adeghate E, Pallot DJ (1996) Innervation of the pancreas of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) by neuropeptide-Y, galanin, calcitonin-gene-related peptide, atrial natriuretic peptide and cholecystokinin. Neuropeptides 30(5):420–424PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Afaleq AA, Hozab AA, Basiouni GF, Homeida AM (2003) Hormonal content of the ovarian follicular fluids in the female camels (Camelus dromedarius) during the four seasons of the year. J Prod Dev 8:423–431Google Scholar
  17. Afifi AA, Kraft W, Arif H (1979) Values of R-T3, T4, total T3 and cholestrol of some farm animals in Egypt. Indian Vet J 56:16–18Google Scholar
  18. Agarwal SP, Khanna ND (1993) Endocrine profiles of the indian camel under different phases of reproduction. In: Saint-Martin G (ed) Proceedings of the workshop “is it possible to improve the reproductive performance of the camel?”. IEMVT Publ., coll. Etudes et synthèses de l’IEMVT n°41, Paris (France), 10–12/9/90, pp 77–99Google Scholar
  19. Agarwal SP, Khanna ND, Agarwal VK, Dwaraknath PK (1986) Thyroidal status of male camels during breeding and non-breeding season. Indian J Anim Sci 56:1036–1038Google Scholar
  20. Agarwal SP, Agarwal VK, Khanna ND, Dwaraknath PK (1987a) Profiles of steroid hormones in male camels. Indian J Anim Sci 57:656–661Google Scholar
  21. Agarwal SP, Khanna ND, Agarwal VK, Dwaraknath PK (1987b) Circulating levels of estrogen and progesterone in female camel during pregnancy. Theriogenology 28(6):849–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Agarwal SP, Agarwal VK, Khanna ND, Dwaraknath PK (1989a) Serum estrogen and progesterone levels in camel (Camelus dromedarius) during estrus cycle. Indian Vet J 66:605–608Google Scholar
  23. Agarwal SP, Khanna ND, Agarwal VK, Dwaraknath PK (1989b) Circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius). Theriogenology 31(6):1239–1247PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Agarwal SP, Rai AK, Khanna ND (1991) Serum progesterone levels in female camels during oestrus cycle. Indian J Anim Sci 61:37–39Google Scholar
  25. Agarwal SP, Rai AK, Khanna ND (1992) Hormonal studies in postpartum female camels and their neonates. Theriogenology 38(4):735–747PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Agrawal RP, Swami SC, Beniwal R, Kochar DK, Kothari RP (2002) Effect of camel milk on glycemic control, risk factors an diabetes quality of life in type-1 diabetes: a randomized prospective controlled study. Int J Diabetes 22:70–74Google Scholar
  27. Agrawal RP, Swami SC, Beniwal R, Kochar DK, Sahani M, Tuteja FC, Ghouri SK (2003) Effect of camel milk on glycemic control, risk factors an diabetes quality of life in type-1 diabetes: a randomized prospective controlled study. J Camel Pract Res 10(1):45–50Google Scholar
  28. Ahmed YF, Mahmoud KG, Kandiel MM, Nawito MF, Abdelraziq AMA (2016) Histomorphometry aspect of thyroid gland and biochemical profile in pregnant and non-pregnant dromedary camels. Afr J Biotechnol 15(10):370–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Al-Dughaym AM, Homeida AM (2010) Effect of endotoxin administration in pregnant camels. Saudi J Biol Sci 17:101–103PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Alhaj Ali M, Adem A, Chandranath IS, Benedict S, Pathan JY, Nagelkerke N, Nyberg F, Lewis LK, Yandle TG, Nicholls GM, Frampton CM, Kazzam E (2012) Responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system. PLoS One 7(5):e37299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Alhaj Ali M, Kazzam E, Amir N, Nyberg F, Adem A (2013) Effect of dehydration and blockade of angiotensin II AT1 receptor on stress hormones and anti-oxidants in the one-humped camel. BMC Vet Res 9:232–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ali Khan A, Alzohairy MA, Mohieldein AH (2013) Antidiabetic effects of camel milk in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Am J Biochem Mol Biol 3:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ali A, Derar D, Al-Sobyil FA, Zeitoun MM, Hassanein KM, Al-Howas A (2016) Phimosis in male dromedary camels: clinical findings and changes in the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites, and testosterone concentrations. Theriogenology 85(9):1576–1581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Al-Qarawi AA (1997) Regulation of water and electrolyte metabolism during dehydration and rehydration in camel. Retrospective theses and dissertations, paper 11766, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 99 pGoogle Scholar
  35. Al-Qarawi AA, El-Belely MS (2004) Intratesticular morphometric, cellular and endocrine changes in dromedary bulls exhibiting azoospermia. Vet J 167(2):194–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Al-Qarawi AA, El-Mougy S (2008) Seasonality and the melatonin signal in relation to age as correlated to the sexual cycle of the one-humped male camel (Camelus dromedarius). Biol Rhythm Res 39(2):131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Belely MS, El-Mougy SA (2000) Age-related changes in plasma testosterone concentrations and genital organs content of bulk and trace elements in the male dromedary camel. Anim Reprod Sci 62(4):297–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Belely MS, El-Mougy SA (2001a) Intratesticular morphometric, cellular and endocrine changes around the pubertal period in dromedary camels. Vet J 162(3):241–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Al-Qarawi AA, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Mougy SA (2001b) Impairment in the pituitary-thyroid axis of the Camelus dromedarius infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Dtsch Tierarzlt Wschr 108:172–174Google Scholar
  40. Al-Qarawi AA, Omar HM, Abdel-Rahman HA, El-Mougy SA, El-Belely MS (2004) Trypanosomiasis-induced infertility in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) bulls: changes in plasma steroids concentration and semen characteristics. Anim Reprod Sci 84(1–2):73–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Al-Saiady MY, Mogawer HH, Al-Mutairi SE, Bengoumi M, Faye B, Musaad A, Gar-Elnaby A (2012). Effect of different feeding regime on body weight, ovaries size, developments and blood progesterone level in pre-pubertal she-camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Anim Vet Adv 11(19): 3522–3526Google Scholar
  42. Al-Saiady MY, Mogawer HH, Al-Mutairi SE, Bengoumi M, Musaad A, Gar-Elnaby A, Faye B (2013). Effect of different feeding regime on body weight, testicular size developments, and testosterone level in pre-pubertal male camel (Camelus dromedarius). Afr J Agric Res 8(22): 2631–2636Google Scholar
  43. Al-Saiady MY, Mogawer HH, Al-Mutairi SE, Bengoumi M, Musaad A, Gar-Elnaby A, Faye B (2015) Factors affecting feed intake, body weight, testicular size and testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) serum concentrations in peri-pubertal male camels. Afr J Agric Res 10(14):1709–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Alshamsi NS, Ksiksi TS, Ashraf SS (2015) Altered serum enzymes and biochemical levels in Arabian racing camels with bone fractures. J Anim Plant Sci 25(4):1072–1080Google Scholar
  45. Al-Sobayil FA (2008) Influence of exercise on bone formation and bone resorption biomarkers in sera of racing dromedary camel. J Camel Pract Res 15(1):43–48Google Scholar
  46. Al-Sobayil FA (2010) Circadian rhythm of bone formation biomarkers in serum of dromedary camels. Res Vet Sci 89(3):455–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Al-Suhaimi E, Abu-se'da K, Akbar A (2009) Relationship of leptin hormone with insulin and glucose in Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 16:201–207Google Scholar
  48. Ayoub MA, El-Khouly AA, Mohamed TM (2003) Some hematological and biochemical parameters and steroids hormone levels in the one-humped camel during different physiological conditions. Emir J Agric Sci 15(1):44–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Azouz A, Ateia MZ, Shawky H, Zakaria AD, Farahat AA (1992) Hormonal changes during rutting and the non-breeding season in male dromedary camels. In: Allen WR, Higgins AJ, Mayhew IG, Snow DH, Wade JF (eds) Proceedings of the 1st international camel conference, Dubai. R&W Publications, Newmarket, pp 169–171Google Scholar
  50. Azraqi AA (2007) Relationship of serum leptin concentration to fat deposition in slaughtered young camels. J Anim Vet Adv 6:16–19Google Scholar
  51. Baraka TA (2012) Clinical evaluation of vitamin A, β-carotene, vitamin E and cortisol levels in health and selected diseases in camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Am Sci 8(1):106–111Google Scholar
  52. Bargaâ R, Lektib I, Farh M, El-Abbadir N, Belhgouari A, El-Khasmi M (2016) Seasonal variations of biochemical profile and its correlations with thyroid and adrenal gland hormones in Moroccan camel (Camelus dromedarius). Int J Agric Environ Res 2(6):1858–1872Google Scholar
  53. Barsham MA, Elbagir NM, Barri MES (2015) Hormonal and biochemical alterations in naturally occurring and induced goiter in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Sud J Sci Technol 16(Suppl):89–96Google Scholar
  54. Basiouni GF (1999) Relationship between concentration of ovarian steroids and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the follicular fluids of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 6(2):301–305Google Scholar
  55. Bedrak E, Rosenstrawuch A, Kafka M, Friedlander M (1983) Testicular steroidogenesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the mating and non-mating seasons. Gen Comp Endocrinol 52:255–264PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Bekele T, Olsson K, Olsson U, Dahlborn K (2013) Physiological and behavioral responses to different watering intervals in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 305:R639–R646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Bengoumi M, Riad F, Giry J, De La Farge F, Safwate A, Davicco MJ, Barlet JP (1993) Hormonal control of water and sodium in plasma of camels during dehydration and rehydration. Gen Comp Endocrinol 89:378–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Bengoumi M, Robins SP, De La Farge F, Coxam V, Davicco MJ, Barlet JP (1996) Water restriction and bone metabolism in camels. Reprod Nutr Dev 36:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Bengoumi M, Moutaoukil F, De La Farge F, Faye B (1999) Thyroidal status of the dromedary camel: effect of some physiological factors. J Camel Pract Res 6(1):41–43Google Scholar
  60. Bengoumi M, Moutaoukil F, De La Farge F, Faye B (2003) Seasonal variations of the plasma thyroid hormone concentrations and the body temperature in the dromedary camels. J Camel Pract Res 10:115–119Google Scholar
  61. Bengoumi M, Tabarani A, Sghiri A, Faulconnier Y, Faye B, Chilliard Y (2005) Effects of overfeeding and underfeeding on body weight, lipid content and cellularity in the dromedary camel. Anim Res 54:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Benlamlih S, Dahlborn K, Oukessou M (1993) Blood plasma kinetics of arginine-vasopressin in camels. Acta Physiol Scand 147:341–342PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Bhakat C, Raghavendra S, Sahani MS (2005) Effect of different management conditions on rutting behavior of Indian dromedary camel. Emir J Food Agric 17:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Bono G, Dahir AM, Ahmed JM (1985) Seasonal variations of LH response to GnRH treatment in camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Reprod Fertil 73:335–339Google Scholar
  65. Bono G, Dahir AM, Comin A, Jumale MA (1989) Plasma LH, cortisol and sex steroid variations in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in relation to seasonal climatic changes. Anim Reprod Sci 21:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Bono G, Dahir AM, Comin A, Jumale MA (1993) Seasonal effects on the endocrine reproductive activity of the dromedary camels. In: Saint-Martin G (ed), Proceedings of the workshop “is it possible to improve the reproductive performance of the camel?”. IEMVT Publ., coll. Etudes et synthèses de l’IEMVT n°41, Paris (France), 10–12/9/90, pp 107–115Google Scholar
  67. Chakir Y (2016) Réponses physiologiques au stress de pré-abattage chez le dromadaire (Camelus dromedarius). Thèse n° CED00/2016, Université Hassan de Casablanca, Maroc, 217 pGoogle Scholar
  68. Cristofori F, Quaranta G (1993) Niveaux sériques des stéroïdes chez le dromadaire femelle au cours des différentes phases du cycle sexuel et de la gestation. In: Saint-Martin G (ed) Proceedings of the workshop “is it possible to improve the reproductive performance of the camel?”, IEMVT Publ., coll. Etudes et synthèses de l’IEMVT n°41, Paris (France), 10–12/9/90, pp 65–75Google Scholar
  69. Cristofori P, Aria G, Seren E, Bono G, Ahmed S, Nur HM (1986) Endocrinological aspects of reproduction in the female camel. Rev Mond Zootechn 57:22–25Google Scholar
  70. Davicco MJ, Rémond B, Jabet S, Barlet JP (1992) Plasma osteocalcin concentrations in cows around parturition. The influence of a regular versus a very short dry period. Reprod Nutr Dev 32:313–319PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Deen A (2008a) Testosterone profiles and their correlation with sexual libido in male camels. Res Vet Sci 85(2):220–226PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Deen A (2008b) Evaluation of tail curling test for diagnosis of pregnancy in female camels through scientific means. J Camel Pract Res 15(2):219–222Google Scholar
  73. Deen A, Mal G, Sahani MS (2001) Applicability of commercial progesterone analysis kits standardised on human serum/plasma for progesterone analysis in camel. J Camel Pract Res 8(2):221–226Google Scholar
  74. Delavaud C, Bengoumi M, Faye B, Sghiri A, Faulconnier Y, Tabarani A, Chilliard Y (2004) Plasma leptin measurement in the camel and its relationships to adiposity and feeding level. In: 5th International Congress on farm Animal endocrinology, Budapest, 3–7 July 2004, p 19Google Scholar
  75. Delavaud C, Bengoumi M, Faye B, Levieux D, Chilliard Y (2013) Plasma leptin, glucose and non-esterified fatty acid variations in dromedary camels exposed to prolonged periods of underfeeding or dehydration. Comp Biochem Physiol A:177–185Google Scholar
  76. Derar D, Ali A, Al-Sobayil F (2014) The postpartum period in dromedary camels: uterine involution, ovarian activity, hormonal changes, and response to GnRH treatment. Anim Reprod Sci 151:186–193PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Derar D, Ali A, Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F, Zeitoun MM (2017) Erectile dysfunction in male dromedary camels: clinical findings and changes in the nitric oxide metabolite, cardiac troponin I and testosterone concentrations. Theriogenology 89:201–205PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Diaz-Medina E (2017) Studies on identification, lactation and rearing of dromedaries in the Island of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands). PhD thesis in Animal and Feeding Sciences. University Autonomous of Barcelona (Spain)Google Scholar
  79. Dixit VP, Mehta SN, Georgia GC, Signal SP (1987) Serum testosterone and cortisol in rutting and non-rutting Indian male camel. Indian J Anim Sci 57:1191–1193Google Scholar
  80. Ejtahed HS, Naslaji AN, Mirmiran P, Yeganeh MZ, Hedayati M, Azizi F, Movahedi AM (2015) Effect of camel milk on blood sugar and lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot clinical trial. Int J Endocrinol Metab 13(1):e21160PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. El Khasmi M, Riad F, Safwate A, Bengoumi M, El Abbadi N, Faye B, Coxam V, Davicco MJ, El Alaoui K, Barlet JP (2001) Thyroxine and insulin like growth factor-I and thyroxine in milk and plasma of camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 9(1):53–58Google Scholar
  82. El Khasmi M, Riad F, Safwate A, El Abbadi N, Farh M, Faye B, Coxam V (2005) La chamelle allaitante face au stress calcique: une fonction endocrine adaptée aux conditions désertiques. Revue Sécheresse 16(3):261–267Google Scholar
  83. El Khasmi M, Riad F, Safwate A, Tahri EH, Farh M, El Abbadi N, Coxam V, Faye B (2011a) Effects of preslaughter stress on meat quality and phosphocalcic metabolism in camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Camelid Sci 3:33–38Google Scholar
  84. El Khasmi M, Riad F, Safwate A, Farh M, Belhouar A, Hidane K, El Abbadi N, Coxam V, Faye B (2011b) Circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and testosterone during the rutting and non-rutting periods in Maroccan dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Emir J Food Agric 23(4):368–374Google Scholar
  85. El Khasmi M, Chakir Y, Riad F, Safwate A, Tahri EH, Farh M, El Abbadi N, Abouhaf R, Faye B (2013) Effects of transportation stress during the hot-dry season on some haematological and physiological parameters in Moroccan dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Life Sci 7(1):13–25Google Scholar
  86. El Khasmi M, Chakir Y, Bergaâ R, Barka K, Lektib I, El-Abbadi N, Belhouari A, Faye B (2015) Impact of transport distance on stress biomarkers levels in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Emir J Food Agric 27(6):507–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. El-Allali K, Achaaban MR, Vivien-Roels B, Bothorel B, Tligui NS, Pevet P (2005) Seasonal variations in the nycthemeral rhythm of plasma melatonin in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Pineal Res 39:121–128PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. El-Allali K, Achaâban MR, Bothorel B, Piro M, Bouâouda H, El-Allouchi M, Ouassat M, Malan A, Pévet P (2013) Entrainment of the circadian clock by daily ambient temperature cycles in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 304:R1044–R1052PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. El-Bahr SM, Ghoneim IM, Waheed MM (2015) Biochemical and hormonal analysis of follicular fluid and serum of female dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) with different sized ovarian follicles. Anim Reprod Sci 159:98–103PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. El-Basheir HM, Idris OF, Abdalla YH, Babikir AE (2001) Serum progesetrone profile to monitor the reproductive activity of camels. Adv Reprod 5(3):5–7Google Scholar
  91. El-Bassiony GM, Al-Sagair OA, El-Daly ES, El-Nady AM (2005) Alterations in the pituitary-thyroid axis in camel Camelus dromedarius infected by larvae of nasal bot fly Cephalopina titillator. J Anim Vet Adv 4(3):345–348Google Scholar
  92. El-Belely MS (1994) Endocrine changes, with emphasis on 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2a and corticosteroids, before and during parturition in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Agric Sci 122(2):315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. El-Harairy MA, Attia KA (2010) Effect of age, pubertal stage and season on testosterone concentration in male dromedary camel. Saudi J Biol Sci 17:227–230PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. El-Harairy MA, Zeidan AEB, Afify AA, Amer HA, Amer AM (2010) Ovarian activity, biochemical changes and histological status of the dromedary she-camel as affected by different seasons of the year. Nat Sci 8(5):54–65Google Scholar
  95. Elias E, Weil S (1989) Serum cortisol levels in camels (Camelus dromedarius) during the reproductive cycle. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 94(4):787–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Elias E, Bedrak E, Yagil R (1984a) Estradiol concentration in the serum of the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) during the various reproductive stages. Gen Comp Endocrinol 56:258–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Elias E, Bedrak E, Yagil R (1984b) Peripheral blood levels of progesterone in female camels during various reproductive stages. Gen Comp Endocrinol 53(2):235–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. El-Khasmi M, Derouiche AF, Riad F, Benouhoud M, Davicco MJ, Coxam V, Safwate A, Barlet JP (1999) Hormones thyroïdiennes iodées libres plasmatiques chez le dromadaire. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 52(1):71–76Google Scholar
  99. El-Khasmi M, Riad F, Safwate A, Bengoumi M, Hidane K, Davicco MJ, Coxam V, Faye B, Barlet JP (2000a) Effet du peptide apparenté à l’hormone parathyroïdienne (PTHrp) sur l’absorption intestinale du D-xylose chez le chamelon nouveau-né du Sud marocain. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 53(2):120–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. El-Khasmi M, Riad F, Safwate A, Bengoumi M, Hidane K, Davicco MJ, Coxam V, Faye B, Barlet JP (2000b) Evolution compare de quelques paramètres minéraux, de l’ostéocalcine, du 25(OH)D et du 1,25(OH)2D chez la chamelle du Sud marocain et son chameleon nouveau-né. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 53(2):115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. El-Kon II, Heleil BA, Mahmoud SA (2011) Effect of age and season on the testicular sperm reserve and testosterone profile in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anim Reprod 8(3/4):68–72Google Scholar
  102. Elmadhi B, Sallmann HP, Fuhrmann H, Von Engelhardt W, Kaske M (1997) Comparative aspects of glucose tolerance in camels, sheep, and ponies. Comp Biochem Physiol 118A(1):147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. El-May M, El-May A, Bouzakoura C, Dubois PM (1987) Immunocytochemical evidence for vasopressin and oxytocin pathways in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Gen Comp Endocrinol 66(2):266–273PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. El-Wishy AB (1987) Reproduction in the female dromedary (Camelus dromedarius): a review. Anim Reprod Sci 15(3–4):273–297Google Scholar
  105. Fat-Halla MM, Ismail AA (1980) Seasonal variations in gonadotropins of one-humped male camel (Camelus dromedarius). In: Proceedings of the 9th international congress on animal reproduction and artificial insemination, 16–20 June 1980. III. Symposia (free communications), Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  106. Fatnassi M, Padalino B, Monaco D, Hamed NM, Khorchani T, Lacalandra GM, Hammadi M (2016) Effect of continuous female exposition on testosterone level and sexual behavior in male dromedary camel. Rev Régions Arides 39(1):49–62Google Scholar
  107. Faye B, Bengoumi M, Viateau E, Tourret M, Chilliard Y (2001) Adipocyte patterns of adipose tissue in camel hump and kidney. J Camel Res Pract 8:29–33Google Scholar
  108. Finberg JP, Yagil R, Berlyne GM (1978) Response of the renin-aldosterone system in the camel to acute dehydration. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 44(6):926–930PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Ghoneim M, Waheed MM, Al-Eknah MM, El-Bahr SM (2012) Immunization against GnRH in the male camel (Camelus dromedarius): effects on sexual behavior, testicular volume, semen characteristics and serum testosterone concentrations. Theriogenology 78(5):1102–1109PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Ghoneim IM, Waheed MM, El-Bahr SM, Al-Heider A, Al-Eknah MM (2013) Comparison of some biochemical and hormonal constituents of oversized follicles and preovulatory follicles in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Theriogenology 79:647–652PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Gombe S, Oduor-Okelo D (1977) Effect of temperature and relative humidity on plasma and gonadal testosterone concentrations in camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Reprod Fertil 50:107–108PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. Hegazy AA, Ali A Al-Eknah M, Ismail S (2001) Studies on pituitary-ovarian axis in the female camel with special reference to cystic and inactive ovaries. Document n°2029, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, 10 pGoogle Scholar
  113. Heshmat HA, Taha A, Ismail AA, Sami MBA (1984) Levels of thyroid hormones in the plasma of pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius). Indian J Anim Sci 54:663–665Google Scholar
  114. Homeida AM, Khalil MG, Taha AM (1988) Plasma concentrations of progesterone, oestrogens, testosterone and LH-like activity during oestrus cycle of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Reprod Fertil 85:593–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Homeida AM, Musa BE, Mohammed FHA (1986) Induction of oestrus in camels by the use of oestradiol benzoate. Small Ruminant and Camel Group (ILCA) 12:21–24Google Scholar
  116. Ismail AA, Siam AA, El-Nahla A, Abuzead SMM (1998) Synchronization of estrus in the she-camel. In: Proceedings of the third annual meeting for animal production under arid conditions, United Arab Emirates University Publications, 1, pp 96–107Google Scholar
  117. Kaske M, Elmadhi B, Von Engelhardt W, Sallman HP (2001) Insulin responsiveness of sheep, ponies, miniature pigs and camels: results of hyperinsulinemic clamps using porcin insulin. J Comp Physiol B 171:549–556PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Kataria N, Kataria AK (2004a) Serum calcitonin levels in dromedaries. J Camel Pract Res 11(1):35–38Google Scholar
  119. Kataria N, Kataria AK (2004b) Serum C-terminal parathyroid hormone levels in dromedaries. J Camel Pract Res 13(1):37–39Google Scholar
  120. Kataria N, Kataria AK (2010) Can prolactin be a measurable marker of stress in dromedaries? Slov Vet Res 47(3):133–138Google Scholar
  121. Kataria N, Kataria AK, Agarwal VK, Garg SL, Sahni MS, Singh R (2000) Effect of water restriction on serum aldosterone and cortisol in dromedary camel during winter and summer. J Camel Pract Res 7(1):1–7Google Scholar
  122. Khaldoun M (1993) Potentialités reproductrices du dromadaire femelle: adaptation à l’environnement. In: Saint-Martin G (ed) Proceedings of the workshop “is it possible to improve the reproductive performance of the camel?”. IEMVT Publ., coll. Etudes et synthèses de l’IEMVT n°41, Paris (France), 10–12/9/90, pp 37–50Google Scholar
  123. Khaldoun M, Khaldoun T, Mellado M, Cambar J, Brudieux R (2002) Circadian rhythm in plasma aldosterone concentration and its seasonal modulation in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) living in the Algerian Sahara desert. Chronobiol Int 19(4):683–693PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Khanna D, Agarwal SP, Gupta ML (1996) Effect of water deprivation during summer and winter on thyroid hormones concentration in the Indian camel. Indian J Anim Sci 66(3):253–255Google Scholar
  125. Khazali H (2009) Effect of the Galanin on growth hormone, thyroid hormones and insulin in young castrated Camelus dromedarius fed different levels of their energy requirement. J Appl Sci 9(15):2822–2828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Khazali H (2010) Intravenous orexin reduces LH secretion in castrated Camelus dromedaries fed a sub-maintenance diet. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 23(1):41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kula JT, Tegegne D (2016) Chemical composition and medicinal values of camel milk. Int J Res Stud Biosci 4(4):13–25Google Scholar
  128. Mabrouk S, Khorchani T, Benromdhane M (2010) Bases épidémiocliniques de la maladie du Krafft chez le dromadaire (Camelus dromedarius) dans le Sud tunisien. Rev Elev Méd Vét Pays Trop 63(1–2):29–33Google Scholar
  129. Majchrzak YN, Mastromonaco GF, Korver W, Burness G (2015) Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels. Gen Comp Endocrinol 211:123–130PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Malik A, Al-Senaidy A, Skrzypczak-Jankun E, Jankun J (2012) A study of the anti-diabetic agents of camel milk. Int J Mol Biol 30:585–592Google Scholar
  131. Marie M, Anouassi A (1986) Mating-induced luteinizing hormone surge and ovulation in the female camel (Camelus dromedarius). Biol Reprod 35:792–798PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Marie M, Anouassi A (1987) Induction of luteal activity and progesterone secretion in the non-pregnant one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Reprod Fertil 80:183–192PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Martinat N, Anouassi A, Huet JC, Nespoulous C, Pernollet JC, Combarnous Y (1990) Purification and characterization of glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of prolactin from the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). Comp Biochem Physiol B 97(4):667–674PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Martinat N, Huet JC, Nespoulous C, Combarnous Y, Pernollet JC (1991) Determination of the primary and secondary structures of the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) prolactin and comparison with prolactins from other species. Bioch Biophys Acta Protein Struct Mol Enzymol 1077(3):339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mohamed HE (2006) Factors affecting cortisol status in camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Anim Vet Adv 5:307–309Google Scholar
  136. Mohamed TM, Al-Khouli AA, Abbas TA, El-Badawy AS (2006) Clinical hypothyroid goiter in Camelus dromedarius (Case Report). 14 pp. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/3658185/Goiter_in_Camels_2006
  137. Monaco D, Fatnassi M, Padalino B, Aubé L, Khorchani T, Hammadi M, Lacalandra GM (2015) Effects of a GnRH administration on testosterone profile, libido and semen parameters of dromedary camel bulls. Res Vet Sci 102:212–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Moutouakil F, Bengoumi M (2007) Plasma thyroid hormones levels after maximal exercise in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Camel Pract Res 14(1):75–78Google Scholar
  139. Muhammad BF, Aliyu D, Njidda AA, Madigawa IL (2011) Some haematological, biochemical and hormonal profile of pregnant and non-pregnant she-camels (Camelus dromedarius) raised in a Sudan savanna zone in Nigeria. J Camel Pract Res 18(1):73–77Google Scholar
  140. Mullaicharam AR (2014) A review on medicinal properties of Camel milk. World J Pharm Sci 2(3):237–242Google Scholar
  141. Musaad A, Faye B, Abu-Nikhela A (2013) Lactation curves of dairy camels in an intensive system. Trop Anim Health Prod 4:1039–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Nagy P, Faigl V, Reiczigel J, Juhasz J (2015) Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). J Dairy Sci 98:975–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nazifi S, Abassali PM (1998) Seasonal variations in hematological parameters in camel and their correlation with thyroid activity. J Fac Vet Med Univ Tehran 53:73–76Google Scholar
  144. Nazifi S, Gheisari R, Poorabbas H (1999) The influence of thermal stress on serum biochemical parameters of dromedary camels and their correlation with thyroid activity. Comp Haematol Int 9:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Nazifi S, Mansourian M, Nikhaval B, Razavi SM (2009) The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Trop Anim Health Prod 41(1):129–134PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Omidi A, Sajedi Z, Torbati MBM, Nik HA (2014a) Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius). Trop Anim Health Prod 46(4):609–614PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Omidi A, Sajedi Z, Montazer Torbati MB, Mostafai M (2014b) Metabolic profile of pregnant, non-pregnant and male two-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Iran. Iran J Vet Med 8(4):235–242Google Scholar
  148. Quéré M, El May A, Bouzakoura C, Dubois MP, Dubois PM (1985) Evidence for somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in discrete cells of the anterior pituitary of camel (Camelus dromedarius). Gen Comp Endocrinol 60(2):187–195PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Rashedi R, Khazali H (2010) The effect of intravascular injection of ghrelin on the mean plasma concentrations of insulin and ACTH in immature camels fed with diets containing different levels of their energy requirements. Physiol Pharmacol 13(4):386–396Google Scholar
  150. Rawy MS, Derar DR, El-Sherry TM, Megahed GA (2012) Characterisation of follicular and luteal blood flow in female dromedary camel induced to ovulate using GnRH analogue. J Camel Pract Res 19(2):269–275Google Scholar
  151. Rejeb A, Amara A, Rekik M, Rezigui H, Crespeau F (2011) Histomorphometry and hormone secretion of the thyroid gland of the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius). J Camelid Sci 4:10–22Google Scholar
  152. Riad F (1995) Régulation endocrinienne du métabolisme hydroélectrolytique et phosphocalcique chez le dromadaire. Thesis for State doctorate in Animal Physiology, University of Casablanca, Morocco, 225 pGoogle Scholar
  153. Riad F, Bengoumi M, Giry J, Davicco MJ, Safwate A, Barlet JP (1994) Renin-aldosterone axis and arginine-vasopressin responses to sodium depletion in camels. Gen Comp Endocrinol 95:240–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Riad F, Bengoumi M, Tressol JC, Davicco MJ, Coxam V, Barlet JP (1995) Endocrine regulation of calcium and phosphorus concentration in camel’s milk. Ann Zootech (Suppl) 44:306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Royatvand S, Fallah Hoseini H, Ezzatpanah H, Sekehchi M (2013) Determination of insulin concentration in camel milk using ultra violet–visible absorption spectroscopy. J Food Biosci Technol 3:53–60Google Scholar
  156. Ruiz FJ, Oltenacu PA, Smith RD (1989) Evaluation of on-farm milk progesterone tests to determine non pregnant cows and to prevent insemination errors. J Dairy Sci 72:2718–2727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Saeb M, Baghshani H, Nazifi S, Saeb S (2010) Physiological response of dromedary camels to road transportation in relation to circulating levels of cortisol, thyroid hormones and some serum biochemical parameters. Trop Anim Health Prod 42:55–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Saleem AKY (2006) Some factors affecting cortisol level and meat quality in camels. In: Proceedings of the international scientific conference on camels. Qassim University, Part 4, pp 2088–2096Google Scholar
  159. Salem HAH, Serur BH, Amer HA (1997) Oestradiol, progesterone and thyroxine in follicular fluids of normal, cystic and atretic follicles of non-pregnant camels in Saudi Arabia. J Camel Pract Res 4(1):81–83Google Scholar
  160. Sayed-Ahmed A, Rudas P, Bartha T (2005) Partial cloning and localisation of leptin and its receptor in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Vet J 170:264–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sazmand A, Rasooli A, Nouri M, Hamidinejar H, Hekmatimoghaddam S (2011) Serobiochemical alterations in subclinically affected dromedary camels with Trypanosoma evansi in Iran. Pak Vet J 31(3):223–226Google Scholar
  162. Sboui A, Khorchani T, Djegham M, Agrebi A, Elhatmi H, Belhadj O (2010) Anti-diabetic effect of camel milk in alloxan-induced diabetic dogs: a dose-response experiment. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 94(4):540–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Shareha AM (1998) Effect of damaging brown gland (poll-gland) on plasma blood testosterone concentration in male camels. In: Proceedings of the third annual meeting for animal production under arid conditions, United Arab Emirates University Publications, 1, pp 122–125Google Scholar
  164. Siam AA, Mona MA, Wafaa EM, Ismail A (1993) Plasma levels of glucose and insulin in camels during dehydration. J Vet Sci 9(3):93–96Google Scholar
  165. Sid-Ahmed OE, Sanhouri A, Elwaseela BE, Fadallah I, Elazhari GE, Möstl E (2013) Assessment of adrenocortical activity by non-invasive measurement of faecal cortisol metabolites in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Trop Anim Health Prod 456:1453–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Skidmore JA, Billah M, Allen WR (1996a) The ovarian follicular wave pattern and induction of ovulation in the mated and non-mated one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Reprod Fertil 106:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Skidmore JA, Billah M, Allen WR (1996b) Patterns of hormone secretion throughout pregnancy in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Reprod Fertil Dev 8(5):863–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Skidmore JA, Payne JH, Lamming GE, Allen WR (1996c) Control of luteolysis in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). In: Proceedings of the 13th international congress animal reproduction, Sydney, 30/06–4/07/96, AI 216 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  169. Skidmore J, Starbuck GR, Lamming GE, Allen WR (1998) Control of luteolysis in the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Reprod Fertil 114:201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Souilem O, Chine O, Alguemi C, Gogny M (1999) Etude de la glycémie chez le dromadaire (Camelus dromedarius) en Tunisie: résultats préliminaires. Rev Méd Vét 150(6):537–542Google Scholar
  171. Tajik J (2013) Correlations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones with some serum biochemical parameter in clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius). Online J Vet Res 17(8):407–415Google Scholar
  172. Tajik J, Sazmand A, Moghaddam SHH, Rasooli A (2013) Serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, cholesterol and triglyceride, and their correlations together in clinically healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius): effect of season, sex and age. Vet Res Forum 4(4):239–243PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. Tharwat M, Al-Sobayil F (2015) Serum concentrations of acute phase proteins and bone biomarkers in female dromedary camels during the periparturient period. J Camel Pract Res 22(2):271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Tibary A, Anouassi A (1997) Theriogenology in camelidae. Anatomy, physiology, pathology and artificial breeding. Actes Ed., IAV HassanII, Rabat, Morocco, 489 pGoogle Scholar
  175. Towhidi A, Rostami F, Chamani M, Khazali H (2001) Endocrine profile of female camels to determine onset of puberty. Adv Reprod 5(3):1–2Google Scholar
  176. Varshney VP, Khanna ND, Pande JK, Tandon SN (1984) Studies of the status of thyroid activity of the arid zone in India. J Vet Physiol Allied Sci 3:52–54Google Scholar
  177. Vyas S, Ravault JP, Faye B, Chemineau P (1997) The circadium rythm of melatonin secretion in camel (Camelus dromedarius). Rev Elev Med Vét Pays Trop 50:261–263Google Scholar
  178. Vyas S, Kishore N, Bissa UK, Mal G (2010) Serum progesetrone analysis by commercially available EIA kit to monitor ovulation and conception in dromedary camels. J Camel Pract Res 17(1):79–83Google Scholar
  179. Waheed MM, Al-Eknah MM, El-Bahr SM (2011) Some biochemical characteristics and preservation of epididymal camel spermatozoa (Camelus dromedarius). Theriogenology 76(6):1126–1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Waheed MM, Ghoneim IM, Alhaider AK (2015) Seminal plasma and serum fertility biomarkers in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). Theriogenology 83(4):650–654PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. Wernery U, Johnson B, Tawfig Ishmail W (2006a) Insulin content in raw dromedary milk and serum measured over one lactation period. J Camel Pract Res 13(2):89–90Google Scholar
  182. Wernery U, Nagy P, Bhai I, Schiele W, Johnson B (2006b) The effect of heat treatment, pasteurization and different storage temperatures on insulin concentrations in camel milk. Milchwissenschaft 61(1):25–28Google Scholar
  183. Xu YS, Wang HY, Zeng GQ, Jiang GT, Gao YH (1985) Hormone concentrations before and after semen-induced ovulation in the Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). J Reprod Fertil 74:341–346PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Xu YS, Gao YH, Zeng GQ (1993) Studies on the mechanism of ovulation in Bactrian camel. Hormonal profile in semen with special emphasis on their relation to ovulation. In: Saint-Martin G (ed) Proceedings of the workshop “is it possible to improve the reproductive performance of the camel?”. IEMVT Publ., coll. Etudes et synthèses de l’IEMVT n°41, Paris (France), 10–12/9/90, 17–24Google Scholar
  185. Yadegari M (2015) Evaluation of prevalence of the types of thyroid disorders using ultrasound and pathology of one humped camel in Iran (Camelus dromedarius). Int J Biol Biomol Agric Food Biotechnol Eng 9(2):154–157Google Scholar
  186. Yadegari M, Azizi S, Khamesipour F (2014) Evaluation of prevalence of the types of thyroid disorders using ultrasound and pathology of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 20(4):605–611Google Scholar
  187. Yagil R, Etzion Z (1979) The role of antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone in the dehydrated and rehydrated camel. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 63(2):275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Yagil R, Etzion Z (1980) Hormonal and behavioural patterns in the male camel (Camelus dromedarius). J Reprod Fertil 58:61–65PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. Yagil R, Etzion Z, Ganani J (1978) Camel thyroid metabolism: effect of season and dehydration. J Appl Physiol 45:540–544PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Zagorski O, Maman A, Yafee A, Meisles A, Van Creveld C, Yagil R (1998) Insulin in milk – a comparative study. Int J Anim Sci 13:241–244Google Scholar
  191. Zeidan AEB, Abbas HE (2003) Physico-biochemical changes in the male dromedary camels during breeding (rutting) and non-breeding season. J Camel Pract Res 10(2):183–190Google Scholar
  192. Zhao XX, Zhang Y, Chen BX (1998) Serum progesterone and 17β-estradiol concentrations during pregnancy of Bactrian camel. Theriogenology 50(4):595–604PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Zhao XX, Zhang Y, Chen BX (2001a) Preliminary observations on the concentrations of serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during gestation in Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). Vet Res Commun 25(2):153–160PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Zhao XX, Li XL, Chen BX (2001b) Isolation of ovulation-inducing factors in the seminal plasma of Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Reprod Domest Anim 36(3–4):177–181PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Zia-Ur-Rahman D, Straten MV, Haq IU (1998) Blood biochemical, hormonal profiles and milk composition of low and high yielding camel. Actes de l’atelier “Chameaux et dromadaires, Animaux laitiers” 24–26 Oct. 1994. Nouakchott (Mauritanie), Ed. CIRAD, 1998 (coll. Colloques), pp 163–165Google Scholar
  196. Zia-Ur-Rahman D, Akhtar N, Ahmad N, Ali S, Haq IU (2001) Endocrine profile of female camels to determine onset of puberty. Adv Reprod 5(3):10a, 2 pGoogle Scholar
  197. Zia-Ur-Rahman D, Ahmad N, Bukhari SA, Akhtar N, Haq IU (2007) Serum hormonal, electrolytes and trace element profiles in the rutting and non-rutting one-humped male camel (Camelus dromedarius). Anim Reprod Sci 101(1–2):172–178PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. Zia-Ur-Rahman D, Bukhari SA, Ahmad N, Akhtar N, Ijaz A, Yousaf MS, Haq IU (2008) Dynamics of follicular fluid in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Reprod Domest Anim 43(6):664–671PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Ziv A, Sod-Moriah UA, Creveld C, Yagil R (1997) Is water restriction a stress for camels (Camelus dromedarius)? J Camel Pract Res 4(2):217–221Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard Faye
    • 1
  • Mohammed Bengoumi
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre de Coopération International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement Research UnitSELMET (Livestock system in Mediterranean and tropical milieu)MontpellierFrance
  2. 2.FAO Regional OfficeTunisTunisia
  3. 3.IAV Hassan IIRabatMorocco

Personalised recommendations