Methods for Building Future States: Framing and Reframing

  • Wayne C. Chung


Designers have the ability to frame and reframe situations through careful observation, analyzing, synthesizing, and reconceptualizing what is possible. The inherent power of design is through the application of tools and methods to visualize the concrete and abstract. Concept mapping and modeling is a highly effective process to evaluate and communicate the relationships between object, interactions, and respective stakeholders. Subsequent design activities and output rely on transposing these interrelationships of objects as systems, subsystems, and their interactions into a tangible medium. This serves as a common denominator for project team members so that next step activities and output align towards the contextual project intent.


Concept mapping Conceptual modeling Systems Framing Reframing Future state Collaborative teamwork Collaborative visualization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne C. Chung
    • 1
  1. 1.School of DesignCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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