Confident Translinguals

  • Patrick Kiernan


This chapter provides case studies of three developed, balanced and confident translinguals in the class. It also includes discussion of kikokushijo or returnees, and as well bilingualism and ambilingualism. The consideration of the three confident translinguals reveals that though they share the fact that they have lived almost equal periods of their life inside and outside Japan, their learning histories were very different. Yoko was the closest to a traditional returnee and spent most of her early childhood abroad. Osamu, however, supported by his parents was deliberately raised as a balanced bilingual. Aiko’s parents also planned to raise her as bilingual but what stands out is the autonomy she had over her own learning by negotiating her educational choices with her parents.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Kiernan
    • 1
  1. 1.KenkyutoMeiji UniversityTokyoJapan

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