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Challenges and Complications of Immobility

  • Christina May Moran de Brito
  • Linamara Rizzo Battistella
  • Maria Lúcia Costacurta Guarita
Chapter

Abstract

Prevention and treatment of the complications of immobility play an important role on the care of hospitalized patients with traumatic injuries. Effects of immobility involve several body functions and may lead to future morbidity, disability, and even mortality, with significant socioeconomic impact. In addition to the most evident complications, such as pressure ulcers, deformities, joint pain, loss of muscle and bone mass, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, atelectasis and pneumonia, and also injuries to the cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, gastrointestinal, excretory, vestibular, cognitive, and psychological systems have been reported. Regarding traumatic brain injury patients, disorders resulting from prolonged bed rest periods are combined with injury-related morbidities and complications. Early mobilization strategies have proven to be a feasible and safe approach that may promote improved physical function, higher independence levels, and an accelerated process of the return to premorbidity condition and activities. Moreover, early rehabilitation has also been associated with the reduction of the length of hospital stay and costs.

Keywords

Bed rest Immobilization Immobility complications Traumatic brain injury Disuse Bone loss Muscle loss Pressure ulcers Deformity Postural hypotension Deep vein thrombosis Pulmonary embolism Early mobilization Early rehabilitation 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina May Moran de Brito
    • 1
  • Linamara Rizzo Battistella
    • 2
  • Maria Lúcia Costacurta Guarita
    • 3
  1. 1.Rehabilitation DepartmentInstitute of Cancer of São Paulo, Clinics Hospital – School of Medicine – University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Legal Medicine, Medical Ethics, Social and Occupational Medicine and Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine InstituteClinics Hospital – School of Medicine – University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Institute of Cancer of São Paulo – Rehabilitation Department, São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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