Advertisement

Digital Therapeutics in the Management of Chronic Pain

  • Beth RogozinskiEmail author
  • Walter Greenleaf
  • Josh Sackman
  • Alex Cahana
Chapter

Abstract

Digital therapeutics are a much-needed addition to the available treatments necessary to curb today’s chronic pain epidemic. Having evolved in the past several years and now being clinically validated and able to readily connect to clinical dashboards, these treatments represent an alternative option to help patients and clinicians alike address chronic pain and its most common comorbidities. This chapter provides a broad overview of digital therapeutics, a discussion of several types of digital treatments available, and a detailed review of clinical data demonstrating the promise and potential of digital therapeutics that address the interpretation of pain via a neural systems approach.

References

  1. A-Tjak, J. G., Davis, M. L., Morina, N., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A., Emmelkamp, P. M. (2014). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy for clinically relevant mental and physical health problems. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84(1), 30–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000365764. Epub 2014 Dec 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, A., & Muench, F. (2012). There’s an app for that: Information technology applications for cognitive behavioral practitioners. The Behavior Therapist, 35(4), 65–73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. American Chronic Pain Association. (2017). ACPA resource guide to chronic pain management: An integrated guide to medical, interventional, behavioral, pharmacologic and rehabilitation therapies, 2017 Edition.Google Scholar
  4. American Hospital Association and Samueli Institute. (2011). 2010 complementary and alternative medicine survey of hospitals. Samueli Institute, 2011.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, P. L., Zimand, E., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2005). Cognitive behavioral therapy for public‐speaking anxiety using virtual reality for exposure. Depression and Anxiety, The Journal of ADAA.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrews, G., Cuijpers, P., Craske, M. G., McEvoy, P., & Titov, N. (2010). Computer therapy for the anxiety and depressive disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: A Meta- analysis. PLoS One, 5(10), e13196.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013196.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey, J. O., Bailenson, J. N., & Casasanto, D. (2016). When does virtual embodiment change our minds? Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 25(2), 222–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman, M., Buckey, J. C., Hull, J. G., Linardatos, E., Song, S. L., McLellan, R. K., & Hegel, M. T. (2014). Feasibility study of an interactive multimedia electronic problem solving treatment program for depression: A preliminary uncontrolled trial. Behavior Therapy, 45(3), 358–375.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geth.2014.02.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bordnick, P. S., Carter, B. L., & Traylor, A. C. (2011). What virtual reality research in addictions can tell us about the future of obesity assessment and treatment. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 5(2), 265–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Botella, C., Garcia-Palacios, A., Vizcaíno, Y., Herrero, R., Baños, R. M., & Belmonte, M. A. (2013). Virtual reality in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A pilot study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(3), 215–223.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.1572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bouchard, S., Cotes, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2006). Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure in the treatment of arachnophobia using 3D games. Tech Healthcare, 14, 19–27.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, C. A., & Jones, A. K. P. (2010). Meditation experience predicts less negative appraisal of pain: Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of anticipatory neural responses. Pain, 150(3), 428–438.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Buhrman, M., Fältenhag, S., Ström, L., & Andersson, G. (2004). Controlled trial of internet-based treatment with telephone support for chronic back pain. Pain, 111, 368–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buhrman, M., Nilsson-Ihrfelt, E., Jannert, M., Ström, L., & Andersson, G. (2011). Guided internet-based cognitive behavioural treatment for chronic back pain reduces pain catastrophizing: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43, 500–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buhrman, M., Syk, M., Burvall, O., Hartig, T., Gordh, T., & Andersson, G. (2015). Individualized guided internet-delivered cognitive-behavior therapy for chronic pain patients with comorbid depressionand anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 31(6), 504–516.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Campbell, A. N., Nunes, E. V., Matthews, A. G., Stitzer, M., Miele, G. M., Polsky, D., Turrigiano, E., Walters, S., McClure, E. A., Kyle, T. L., Wahle, A., Van Veldhuisen, P., Goldman, B., Babcock, D., Stabile, P. Q., Winhusen, T., & Ghitza, U. E. (2014). Internet-delivered treatment for substance abuse: A multisite randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(6), 683–690.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13081055.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Castro Sweet, C. M., Chiguluri, V., Gumpina, R., Abbott, P., Madero, E. N., Payne, M., Happe, L., Matanich, R., Renda, A., & Prewitt, T. (2017, January 24). Outcomes of a digital health program with human coaching for diabetes risk reduction in a Medicare population. Journal of Aging and Health, 30(5), 692–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coelho, C. M., Waters, A. M., Hine, T. J., & Wallis, G. (2009). The use of virtual reality in acrophobia research and treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(5), 563–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cornel, E. B., van Haarst, E. P., Schaarsberg, R. B., & Geels, J. (2005). The effect of biofeedback physical therapy in men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III. European Urology, 47(5), 607–611.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2004.12.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Difede, J., Cukor, J., Jayasinghe, N., Patt, I., Jedel, S., Spielman, L., et al. (2007). Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following September 11, 2001. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(11), 1639–1647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dahl, J., Wilson, K., & Nilsson, A. (2004, Autumn). Acceptance and commitment therapy and the treatment of persons at risk for long-term disability resulting from stress and pain symptoms. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 785–801.Google Scholar
  22. Ershow, A. G., Peterson, C. M., Riley, W. T., Rizzo, A. S., & Wansink, B. (2011). Virtual reality technologies for research and education in obesity and diabetes: Research needs and opportunities. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 5(2), 212–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Faber, A. W., Patterson, D. R., & Bremer, M. (2013). Repeated use of immersive virtual reality therapy to control pain during wound dressing changes in pediatric and adult burn patients. Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association, 34(5), 563–568.  https://doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0b013e3182777904 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  25. Fogg, B. J. (2002, December). Persuasive technology: Using computers to change what we think and do. Ubiquity.  https://doi.org/10.1145/764008.763957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Garland, E. L., & Howard, M. O. (2013). Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement reduces pain attentional bias in chronic pain patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 82, 311–318.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000348868.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gaz, D. G., Rieck, T. M., & Peterson, R. W. (2016). Activity tracking and improved health outcomes. Rochester: Intech: Mayo Clinic.  https://doi.org/10.5772/65240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Geraedts, H., Zijlstra, A., Bulstra, S. K., & Zijlstra, W. (2013). Effects of remote feedback in home-based physical activity interventions for older adults: A systematic review. Patient Education and Counseling, 91(1), 14–24. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2012.10.018. Epub 2012 Nov 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Glombiewski, J. A., Bernardy, K., & Häuser, W. (2013). Efficacy of EMG- and EEG-biofeedback in fibromyalgia syndrome: A Meta-analysis and a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 2013, 962741.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/962741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gold, J. I., Belmont, K. A., & Thomas, D. A. (2007). The neurobiology of virtual reality pain attenuation. Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 10(4), 536–544.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.9993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta, A., Scott, K., & Dukewich, M. (2017). Innovative technology using virtual reality in the treatment of pain: Does it reduce pain via distraction, or is there more to it? Pain Medicine, pnx109.  https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnx109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hallman, D. M., Olsson, E. G., von Schéele, B., Melin, L., & Lyskov, E. (2011). Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback in subjects with stress-related chronic neck pain: A pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 36(2), 71–80.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-011-9147-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hassett, A. L., Radvanski, D. C., Vaschillo, E. G., Vaschillo, B., Sigal, L. H., Karavidas, M. K., Buyske, S., & Lehrer, P. M. (2007). A pilot study of the efficacy of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in patients with fibromyalgia. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 32(1), 1–10. Epub 2007 Jan 12.Google Scholar
  34. Hoffman, H. G., Doctor, J. N., Patterson, D. R., Carrougher, G. J., & Furness, T. A. (2000). Virtual reality as an adjunctive pain control during burn wound care in adolescent patients. Pain, 85(1–2), 305–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoffman, H. G., Patterson, D. R., Carrougher, G. J., & Sharar, S. R. (2001). Effectiveness of virtual reality-based pain control with multiple treatments. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 17(3), 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoffman, H. G., Richards, T. L., Van Oostrom, T., Coda, B. A., Jensen, M. P., Blough, D. K., & Sharar, S. R. (2007). The analgesic effects of opioids and immersive virtual reality distraction: Evidence from subjective and functional brain imaging assessments. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(6), 1776–1783, table of contents.  https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000270205.45146.db CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoffman, D. M., Girshick, A. R., Akeley, K., & Banks, M. S. (2008). Vergence–accommodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue. Journal of Vision, 8(3), 33.1–33.30.  https://doi.org/10.1167/8.3.33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hoffman, H. G., Chambers, G. T., Meyer, W. J., Arceneaux, L. L., Russell, W. J., Seibel, E. J., Richards, T. L., Sharar, S. R., & Patterson, D. R. (2011). Virtual reality as an adjunctive non-pharmacologic analgesic for acute burn pain during medical procedures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 41(2), 183–191.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-010-9248-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holden, M., Dyar, T., & Schwamm, L., Bizzi, E., (2003). Home-based telerehabilitation using a virtual environment system. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Virtual Rehabilitation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139.Google Scholar
  40. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education. (2011). Relieving pain in America: A blueprint for transforming prevention, care, education, and research. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). 5 Research Challenges. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92512/
  41. Jamison, R. (2014). There is an app for that: Using mobile technology to improve chronic pain. Presented at: American Pain Society 2014 Medical Meeting. Tampa, FL, April 30–May 4, 2014.Google Scholar
  42. Jamison, R. N., Mei, A., & Ross, E. L. (2016, November 9). Longitudinal trial of a smartphone pain application for chronic pain patients: Predictors of compliance and satisfaction. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 24, 93–100.Google Scholar
  43. Jamison, R. N., Jurcik, D. C., Edwards, R. R., Huang, C., & Ross, E. L. (2017). A pilot comparison of a smartphone app with or without 2-way messaging among chronic pain patients: Who benefits from a pain app? Clinical Journal of Pain, 33(8), 676–686.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000455 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaiser Permanente. (2015, July 20). Most chronic pain patients use alternative therapies, but many don't tell their doctors. ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150720110417.htm.
  47. Kauer, S. D., Reid, S. C., Crooke, A. H. D., Khor, A., Hearps, S. J. C., Jorm, A. F., Sanci, L., & Patton, G. (2012). Self- monitoring using Mobile phones in the early stages of adolescent depression: A randomised controlled trial with an attention comparison group to examine the mediating effect of emotional self-awareness. Journal of Medical Internet Research. J Med Internet Res, 14(3), e67.  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1858 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Koenig, J., Loerbroks, A., Jarczok, M. N., Fischer, J. E., & Thayer, J. F. (2016). Chronic pain and heart rate variability in a cross-sectional occupational sample: Evidence for impaired vagal control. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 32(3), 218–225.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kratz, A. L., Davis, M. C., & Zautra, A. J. (2007). Pain acceptance moderates the relation between pain and negative affect in osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia patients. Annals of Behavioral Medicine : A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 33(3), 291–301.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08836610701359860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lange, B., Flynn, S., & Rizzo, A. (2009). Initial usability assessment of off-the-shelf video game consoles for clinical game-based motor rehabilitation. The Physical Therapy Review, 14, 355–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Law, E. F., Dahlquist, L. M., Sil, S., Weiss, K. E., Herbert, L. J., Wohlheiter, K., & Horn, S. B. (2011). Videogame distraction using virtual reality technology for children experiencing cold pressor pain: The role of cognitive processing. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(1), 84–94.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsq063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee, J. H. (2016, Winter). The effects of music on pain: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 53(4), 430–477. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thw012. Epub 2016 Oct 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lupton, D. (2017). Digital health: Critical and cross-disciplinary perspectives: Critical approaches to health. London: Routlage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maglione, M., Hempel, S., Ruelaz, A., Apaydin, E., Ewing, B., Hilton, L., Xenakis, L., Shanman, R. M., Newberry, S., Colaiaco, B., & Sorbero, M. E. (2016). Mindfulness meditation for chronic pain: A systematic review. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1317.html
  55. Mani, M., Kavanagh, D. J, Hides, L., & Stoyanov, S. R. (2015). Review and evaluation of mindfulness-based iPhone apps. Eysenbach G, ed. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 3(3), e82.  https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.4328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marceau, L. D., Link, C. L., Jamison, R. N., & Carolan, S. J. (2007). Electronic diaries as a tool to improve pain management: Is there any evidence? Pain Medicine, 8(Suppl 3), S101–S109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCaul, K., & Malott, J. (1984). Distraction and coping with pain. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 516–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McCraken, L. M., Vowles, K. E., & Eccleston, C. (2004). Acceptance of chronic pain: Component analysis and a revised assessment method. Pain, 107, 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McLay, R. N., Wood, D. P., Webb-Murphy, J. A., Spira, J. L., Wiederhold, M. D., Pyne, J. M., et al. (2011). A randomized, controlled trial of virtual reality-graded exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in active duty service members with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14(4), 223–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Melzack, R., & Wall, P. D. (1965, November 19). Pain mechanisms: A new theory. Science, 150, 971–979.Google Scholar
  61. Merry, S. N., Stasiak, K., Shepherd, M., Frampton, C., Fleming, T., Lucassen, M. F. G., et al. (2012). The effectiveness of SPARX, a computerised self help intervention for adolescents seeking help for depression: randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. BMJ, 344, e2598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Miller, J. J., Fletcher, K., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. General Hospital Psychiatry, 17, 192–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Morone, N. E., Greco, C. M., & Weiner, D. K. (2008a). Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older adults: A randomized controlled pilot study. Pain, 134(3), 310–319.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2007.04.038.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Morone, N. E., Lynch, C. S., Greco, C. M., Tindle, H. A., & Weiner, D. K. (2008b). “I felt like a new person.” The effects of mindfulness meditation on older adults with chronic pain: Qualitative narrative analysis of diary entries. The Journal of Pain, 9(9), 841–848.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.04.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Nahim, R. L., Boineau, R. Partap S. Khalsa, P. S., Stussman, B. J., Weber, W. J. (2016, September). Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 91(9), 1292–1306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nakamura, D., Moore, M., Carrougher, G. J., Hoffman, H. G., Garcia-Palacios, A., Patterson, D. R., & Furness, T. A., III. (2001). The effectiveness of virtual reality pain control with multiple treatments of longer durations: A case study. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327590IJHC1301_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Neurotech Industry 2016–2017 Report. (2016). Drugs, biologics, stem cells, devices and diagnostics for the brain and nervous system. NeuroInsigths Research and Markets.Google Scholar
  68. Nezamuddin, M., Anwer, S., Khan, S. A., & Equebal, A. (2013). Efficacy of pressure-biofeedback guided deep cervical flexor training on neck pain and muscle performance in visual display terminal operators. Journal of Musculoskeletal Research, 16(3), 1350011-1-1350011-8.  https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218957713500115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. National Institutes of Health: National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH): Important Events in NCCIH History. (July 2012). M. Catherine Bushnell, Ph.D., is appointed scientific director of a new, state-of-the-art NIH research program headquartered in NCCAM’s intramural division and focusing upon the role of the brain in perceiving, modifying, and managing pain. https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/national-center-complementary-integrative-health-nccih
  70. Papastergiou, M. (2009). Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: A literature review. Computers & Education, 53, 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P., Wiechman, S. A., & Sharar, S. R. (2010). Virtual reality hypnosis for pain associated with recovery from physical trauma. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 58(3), 288–300.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207141003760595.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Petry, N. M., Martin, B., Cooney, J. L., & Kranzler, H. R. (2000). Give them prizes and they will come: Contingency management for treatment of alcohol dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(2), 250–257.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.2.250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Riva, G., Mantovani, F., et al. (2007). Affective interactions using virtual reality: The link between presence and emotions. Cyberpsychology & Behavior : The impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society.  https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rothbaum, B. O., Hodges, L., Smith, S., Lee, J. H., & Price, L. (2000). A controlled study of virtual reality exposure therapy for the fear of flying. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 1020–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rutter, C. E., Dahlquist, L. M., & Weiss, K. E. (2009). Sustained efficacy of virtual reality distraction. The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society, 10(4), 391–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.09.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schmitt, Y. Y. S., Hoffman, H. G. H., Blough, D. K. D., Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P., Soltani, M., et al. (2011). A randomized, controlled trial of immersive virtual reality analgesia, during physical therapy for pediatric burns. Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries, 37(1), 61–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2010.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schwartz, S. M. (2014, January 23). Increasing chronic disease costs lowered with digital health coaching. Corporate Wellness Magazine.Google Scholar
  78. Seminowicz, D. A., & Davis, K. D. (2007). Pain enhances functional connectivity of a brain network evoked by performance of a cognitive task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97(5), 3651–3659. 17314240[PubMed].
  79. Sielski, R., Rief, W., & Glombiewski, J. A. (2017). Efficacy of biofeedback in chronic back pain: A Meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 25–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-016-9572-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Simons, L., Elman, I., & Borsook, D. (2014). Psychological processing in chronic pain: A neural systems approach. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 61–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Slater, M., Frisoli, A., Tecchia, F., Guger, C., Lotto, B., Steed, A., Pfurtscheller, G., Leeb, R., Reiner, M., Sanchez-Vives, M. V., et al. (2007). Understanding and realizing presence in the presenccia project. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 27, 90–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Soderland, S. (2017, January 11). Can digital cure healthcare? Oliver Wyman Health.Google Scholar
  83. Spijkerman, M. P., Pots, W. T., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2016). Effectiveness of online mindfulness-based interventions in improving mental health: A review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 45, 102–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.009. Epub 2016 Apr 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tan, G., Teo, I., Anderson, K. O., & Jensen, M. P. (2011). Adaptive versus maladaptive coping and beliefs and their relation to chronic pain adjustment. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 27(9), 769–774.  https://doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0b013e31821d8f5a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Vardeh, D., Edwards, R. R., & Jamison, R. N. (2013, December). There’s an app for that: Mobile technology is a new advantage in managing chronic pain. Interna-tional Association for the Study of Pain: Pain Clinical Updates, XIX(6), 1–7.Google Scholar
  86. Villemure, C., & Bushnell, M. C. (2009). Mood influences supraspinal pain processing separately from attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(3), 705–715.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3822-08.2009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wender, R., Hoffman, H. G., Hunner, H. H., Seibel, E. J., Patterson, D. R., & Sharar, S. R. (2009). Interactivity influences the magnitude of virtual reality analgesia. Journal of Cyber Therapy and Rehabilitation, 2(1), 27–33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Yee, N., & Bailenson, J. (2007). The Proteus effect: The effect of transformed self-representation on behavior. Human Communication Research, 33, 271–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yucha, C., & Montgomery, D. (2008). Evidence based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Wheat Ridge: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.Google Scholar
  90. Zeidan, F., Grant, J. A., Brown, C. A., McHaffie, J. G., & Coghill, R. C. (2012). Mindfulness meditation-related pain relief: Evidence for unique brain mechanisms in the regulation of pain. Neuroscience Letters, 520(2), 165–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2012.03.082.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beth Rogozinski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Walter Greenleaf
    • 2
  • Josh Sackman
    • 3
  • Alex Cahana
    • 4
  1. 1.TransmediaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Stanford UniversityPortola ValleyUSA
  3. 3.AppliedVRStudio CityUSA
  4. 4.Ark-InvestNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations