Advertisement

Temporomandibular Disorders and Its Relationship with Fibromyalgia

  • Ana M. VellyEmail author
  • Hong Chen
  • João R. Ferreira
  • Shrisha Mohit
  • Maria Martha B. Tarozzo
  • James R. Fricton
Chapter

Abstract

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is the second most common musculoskeletal condition resulting in orofacial pain and disability. Although most cases of temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD) are mild and self-limiting, about 10% of TMJD patients develop severe disorders associated with chronic pain and disability. One in two patients seeking care still has pain 5 years later. The treatment of TMD has been an increasing financial burden, with annual US costs doubling in the last decade to $4 billion annually. It has been found that fibromyalgia (FM) plays a significant role in the persistence of TMD. This chapter reviews the characteristics and the relationship between TMD and FM, highlighting the importance of this comorbid condition in the management of TMD.

References

  1. Aaron, L. A., & Buchwald, D. (2001a). Fibromyalgia and other unexplained clinical conditions. Current Rheumatology Reports, 3(2), 116–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaron, L. A., & Buchwald, D. (2001b). A review of the evidence for overlap among unexplained clinical conditions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134(9 Pt 2), 868–881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aaron, L. A., & Buchwald, D. (2003). Chronic diffuse musculoskeletal pain, fibromyalgia and co-morbid unexplained clinical conditions. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology, 17(4), 563–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aaron, L. A., Burke, M. M., & Buchwald, D. (2000). Overlapping conditions among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular disorder. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(2), 221–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adler, G. K., Kinsley, B. T., Hurwitz, S., Mossey, C. J., & Goldenberg, D. L. (1999). Reduced hypothalamic-pituitary and sympathoadrenal responses to hypoglycemia in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. The American Journal of Medicine, 106(5), 534–543.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Aggarwal, V. R., Macfarlane, G. J., Farragher, T. M., & McBeth, J. (2010). Risk factors for onset of chronic oro-facial pain--results of the North Cheshire oro-facial pain prospective population study. Pain, 149(2), 354–359.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balasubramaniam, R., de Leeuw, R., Zhu, H., Nickerson, R. B., Okeson, J. P., & Carlson, C. R. (2007). Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in fibromyalgia and failed back syndrome patients: A blinded prospective comparison study. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, 104(2), 204–216.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bengtsson, A., Henriksson, K. G., Jorfeldt, L., Kagedal, B., Lennmarken, C., & Lindstrom, F. (1986a). Primary fibromyalgia. A clinical and laboratory study of 55 patients. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 15(3), 340–347.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bengtsson, A., Henriksson, K. G., & Larsson, J. (1986b). Reduced high-energy phosphate levels in the painful muscles of patients with primary fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 29(7), 817–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bengtsson, A., Henriksson, K. G., & Larsson, J. (1986c). Muscle biopsy in primary fibromyalgia. Light-microscopical and histochemical findings. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 15(1), 1–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger, A., Dukes, E., Martin, S., Edelsberg, J., & Oster, G. (2007). Characteristics and healthcare costs of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 61(9), 1498–1508.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berglund, B., Harju, E. L., Kosek, E., & Lindblom, U. (2002). Quantitative and qualitative perceptual analysis of cold dysesthesia and hyperalgesia in fibromyalgia. Pain, 96(1–2), 177–187.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradley, L. A., McKendree-Smith, N. L., & Alarcon, G. S. (2000). Pain complaints in patients with fibromyalgia versus chronic fatigue syndrome. Current Review of Pain, 4(2), 148–157.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Burris, J. L., Evans, D. R., & Carlson, C. R. (2010). Psychological correlates of medical comorbidities in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 141(1), 22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buskila, D. (2001). Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 13(2), 117–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cimino, R., Michelotti, A., Stradi, R., & Farinaro, C. (1998). Comparison of clinical and psychologic features of fibromyalgia and masticatory myofascial pain. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 12(1), 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clauw, D. J. (2014). Fibromyalgia: A clinical review. JAMA, 311(15), 1547–1555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clauw, D. J., & Chrousos, G. P. (1997). Chronic pain and fatigue syndromes: Overlapping clinical and neuroendocrine features and potential pathogenic mechanisms. Neuroimmunomodulation, 4(3), 134–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clauw, D. J., & Crofford, L. J. (2003). Chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia: What we know, and what we need to know. Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology, 17(4), 685–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen, H., Neumann, L., Shore, M., Amir, M., Cassuto, Y., & Buskila, D. (2000). Autonomic dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia: Application of power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 29(4), 217–227.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Costa, Y. M., Conti, P. C., de Faria, F. A., & Bonjardim, L. R. (2017). Temporomandibular disorders and painful comorbidities: Clinical association and underlying mechanisms. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology, 123(3), 288–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crofford, L. J., Young, E. A., Engleberg, N. C., Korszun, A., Brucksch, C. B., McClure, L. A., et al. (2004). Basal circadian and pulsatile ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18(4), 314–325.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. da Silva, L. A., Kazyiama, H. H., de Siqueira, J. T., Teixeira, M. J., & de Siqueira, S. R. (2012). High prevalence of orofacial complaints in patients with fibromyalgia: A case-control study. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology, 114(5), e29–e34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dadabhoy, D., Crofford, L. J., Spaeth, M., Russell, I. J., & Clauw, D. J. (2008). Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia. Evidence-based biomarkers for fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 10(4), 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dao, T. T., Reynolds, W. J., & Tenenbaum, H. C. (1997). Comorbidity between myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles and fibromyalgia. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 11(3), 232–241.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. de Abreu, T. C., Nilner, M., Thulin, T., & Vallon, D. (1993). Office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with craniomandibular disorders. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 51(3), 161–170.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. DeSantana, J. M., & Sluka, K. A. (2008). Central mechanisms in the maintenance of chronic widespread noninflammatory muscle pain. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 12(5), 338–343.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Desmeules, J. A., Cedraschi, C., Rapiti, E., Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cohen, P., et al. (2003). Neurophysiologic evidence for a central sensitization in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 48(5), 1420–1429.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Diatchenko, L., Slade, G., Nackley, A., Bhalang, K., Sigurdsson, A., Belfer, I., et al. (2005). Genetic basis for individual variations in pain perception and the development of a chronic pain condition. Human Molecular Genetics, 14(1), 135–143.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Diatchenko, L., Nackley, A. G., Slade, G. D., Fillingim, R. B., & Maixner, W. (2006). Idiopathic pain disorders--pathways of vulnerability. Pain, 123(3), 226–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Domschke, K., Freitag, C. M., Kuhlenbaumer, G., Schirmacher, A., Sand, P., Nyhuis, P., et al. (2004). Association of the functional V158M catechol-O-methyl-transferase polymorphism with panic disorder in women. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 7(2), 183–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Drangsholt, M., & LeResche, L. (1999). Temporomandibular disorders pain. In I. K. C. P. Crombie, S. J. Linton, L. LeResche, & M. Von Korff (Eds.), Epidemiology of pain (pp. 203–233). Seattle: IASP.Google Scholar
  33. Dubner, R. (1992). Neuronal plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn following tissue inflammation. In R. Inoki, Y. Shigenaga, & M. Tohyama (Eds.), Processing and inhibition of nociceptive information (pp. 35–41). Tokyo: Excerpta Medica.Google Scholar
  34. Dubner, R. (1995). Hyperalgesia in response to injury to cutaneous and deep tissues. In J. Fricton & R. Dubner (Eds.), Orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders (pp. 61–71). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  35. Dubner, R., & Bennett, G. J. (1983). Spinal and trigeminal mechanisms of nociception. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 6, 381–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dworkin, S. F., LeResche, L., Von Korff, M., Truelove, E., & Sommers, E. (1989). Predicting continued presence and level of TMD pain: An epidemiologic study. Journal of Dental Research, 68(Special Issue), 194.Google Scholar
  37. Dworkin, S. F., LeResche, L., Fricton, J. R., Mohl, N., Sommers, E., & Truelove, E. (1992). Research diagnostic criteria, Part II, Axis I: Clinical TMD Conditions [Review]. Journal of Craniomandibular Disorders, 6(4), 327–330.Google Scholar
  38. Elam, M., Johansson, G., & Wallin, B. G. (1992). Do patients with primary fibromyalgia have an altered muscle sympathetic nerve activity? Pain, 48(3), 371–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. El-Labban, N. G., Harris, M., Hopper, C., & Barber, P. (1990). Degenerative changes in masseter and temporalis muscles in limited mouth opening and TMJ ankylosis. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, 19, 423–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Enoch, M. A., Xu, K., Ferro, E., Harris, C. R., & Goldman, D. (2003). Genetic origins of anxiety in women: A role for a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism. Psychiatric Genetics, 13(1), 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eriksson, P. O., & Thornell, L. E. (1983). Histochemical and morphological muscle-fibre characteristics of the human masseter, the medial pterygoid, and the temporal muscles. Archives of Oral Biology, 28, 781–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Farella, M., Michelotti, A., Steenks, M. H., Romeo, R., Cimino, R., & Bosman, F. (2000). The diagnostic value of pressure algometry in myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 27(1), 9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, C., Galan-Del-Rio, F., Alonso-Blanco, C., Jimenez-Garcia, R., Arendt-Nielsen, L., & Svensson, P. (2010). Referred pain from muscle trigger points in the masticatory and neck-shoulder musculature in women with temporomandibular disorders. The Journal of Pain, 11(12), 1295–1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fillingim, R. B., Ohrbach, R., Greenspan, J. D., Knott, C., Dubner, R., Bair, E., et al. (2011). Potential psychosocial risk factors for chronic TMD: Descriptive data and empirically identified domains from the OPPERA case-control study. The Journal of Pain, 12(11 Suppl), T46–T60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fillingim, R. B., Ohrbach, R., Greenspan, J. D., Knott, C., Diatchenko, L., Dubner, R., et al. (2013). Psychological factors associated with development of TMD: The OPPERA prospective cohort study. The Journal of Pain, 14(12 Suppl), T75–T90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fricton, J. R. (1990). Myofascial Pain Syndrome: Characteristics and Epidemiology. In J. R. Fricton & E. A. Awad (Eds.), Myofascial Pain and Fibromyalgia. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy (Vol. 17, pp. 107–128). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  47. Fricton, J. R. (2004). The relationship of temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia: Implications for diagnosis and treatment. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 8(5), 355–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fricton, J., & Dall’ Arancio, D. (1994). Myofascial pain of the head and neck: Controlled outcome study of an interdisciplinary pain program. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 2(2), 81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fricton, J. R. K. R., & Haley, D. (1982). Myofascial pain syndrome: A review of 164 cases. Oral Surgery, 60(6), 615–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fricton, J., & Schiffman, E. L. (2008). Management of masticatory myalgia and arthralgia. In B. J. Sessle, G. J. Lavigne, J. P. Lund, & R. Dubner (Eds.), Orofacial pain from basic science to clinical management (pp. 179–185). Chicago: Quintessence Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Fricton, J., Kroening, R., Haley, D., & Siegert, R. (1985). Myofascial pain syndrome of the head and neck: A review of clinical characteristics of 164 patients. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology, 60(6), 615–623.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Fujarra, F. J., Kaziyama, H. H., Siqueira, S. R., Yeng, L. T., Camparis, C. M., Teixeira, M. J., et al. (2016). Temporomandibular disorders in fibromyalgia patients: Are there different pain onset? Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 74(3), 195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Garofalo, J. P., Gatchel, R. J., Wesley, A. L., & Ellis, E., 3rd. (1998). Predicting chronicity in acute temporomandibular joint disorders using the research diagnostic criteria. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 129(4), 438–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gatchel, R. J., Garofalo, J. P., Ellis, E., & Holt, C. (1996). Major psychological disorders in acute and chronic TMD: An initial examination. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 127(9), 1365–1370, 72, 74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gatchel, R. J., Peng, Y. B., Peters, M. L., Fuchs, P. N., & Turk, D. C. (2007). The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: Scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4), 581–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ge, H. Y., Wang, Y., Danneskiold-Samsoe, B., Graven-Nielsen, T., & Arendt-Nielsen, L. (2010). The predetermined sites of examination for tender points in fibromyalgia syndrome are frequently associated with myofascial trigger points. The Journal of Pain, 11(7), 644–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gerwin, R. D. (2011). Fibromyalgia tender points at examination sites specified by the American College of Rheumatology criteria are almost universally myofascial trigger points. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 15(1), 1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gillborg, S., Akerman, S., Lundegren, N., & Ekberg, E. C. (2017). Temporomandibular disorder pain and related factors in an adult population: A cross-sectional study in southern Sweden. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 31(1), 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Giovengo, S. L., Russell, I. J., & Larson, A. A. (1999). Increased concentrations of nerve growth factor in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology, 26(7), 1564–1569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Giske, L., Vollestad, N. K., Mengshoel, A. M., Jensen, J., Knardahl, S., & Roe, C. (2008). Attenuated adrenergic responses to exercise in women with fibromyalgia--a controlled study. European Journal of Pain, 12(3), 351–360.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Glass, J. M., Lyden, A. K., Petzke, F., Stein, P., Whalen, G., Ambrose, K., et al. (2004). The effect of brief exercise cessation on pain, fatigue, and mood symptom development in healthy, fit individuals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(4), 391–398.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Goldenberg, D. L. (2002). Office management of fibromyalgia. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, 28(2), 437–446, xi.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Gracely, R. H., Geisser, M. E., Giesecke, T., Grant, M. A., Petzke, F., Williams, D. A., et al. (2004). Pain catastrophizing and neural responses to pain among persons with fibromyalgia. Brain, 127(Pt 4), 835–843.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Granges, G., & Littlejohn, G. (1993). Pressure pain threshold in pain-free subjects, in patients with chronic regional pain syndromes, and in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 36(5), 642–646.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Gui, M. S., Pedroni, C. R., Aquino, L. M., Pimentel, M. J., Alves, M. C., Rossini, S., et al. (2013). Facial pain associated with fibromyalgia can be marked by abnormal neuromuscular control: A cross-sectional study. Physical Therapy, 93(8), 1092–1101.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Guilbaud, G. (1991). Central neurophysiological processing of joint pain on the basis of studies performed in normal animals and in models of experimental arthritis. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 69, 637–646.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Gur, A., Cevik, R., Nas, K., Colpan, L., & Sarac, S. (2004). Cortisol and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones in follicular-phase women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome and effect of depressive symptoms on these hormones. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 6(3), R232–R238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gursoy, S., Erdal, E., Herken, H., Madenci, E., Alasehirli, B., & Erdal, N. (2003). Significance of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism in fibromyalgia syndrome. Rheumatology International, 23(3), 104–107.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Hamaty, D., Valentine, J. L., Howard, R., Howard, C. W., Wakefield, V., & Patten, M. S. (1989). The plasma endorphin, prostaglandin and catecholamine profile of patients with fibrositis treated with cyclobenzaprine and placebo: A 5-month study. The Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement, 19, 164–168.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Hamilton, S. P., Slager, S. L., Heiman, G. A., Deng, Z., Haghighi, F., Klein, D. F., et al. (2002). Evidence for a susceptibility locus for panic disorder near the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene on chromosome 22. Biological Psychiatry, 51(7), 591–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hedenberg-Magnusson, B., Ernberg, M., & Kopp, S. (1997). Symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders in patients with fibromyalgia and local myalgia of the temporomandibular system. A comparative study. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 55(6), 344–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hedenberg-Magnusson, B., Ernberg, M., & Kopp, S. (1999). Presence of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorder in fibromyalgia. A study by questionnaire. Swedish Dental Journal, 23(5–6), 185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hoeger-Bement, M. K., & Sluka, K. A. (2003). Phosphorylation of CREB and mechanical hyperalgesia is reversed by blockade of the cAMP pathway in a time-dependent manner after repeated intramuscular acid injections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 23(13), 5437–5445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hoffmann, R. G., Kotchen, J. M., Kotchen, T. A., Cowley, T., Dasgupta, M., & Cowley, A. W., Jr. (2011). Temporomandibular disorders and associated clinical comorbidities. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 27(3), 268–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hong, C.-Z. (1994). Persistence of local twitch response with loss of conduction to and from the spinal cord. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hong, C.-Z., & Torigoe, Y. (1994). Electrophysiological characteristics of localized twitch responses in responsive taut bands of rabbit skeletal muscle. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 2(2), 17–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hubbard, D. R., & Berkoff, G. M. (1993). Myofascial trigger points show spontaneous needle EMG activity. Spine, 18, 1803–1807.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Isong, U., Gansky, S. A., & Plesh, O. (2008). Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder-type pain in U.S. adults: The National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 22(4), 317–322.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Janal, M. N., Raphael, K. G., Cook, D. B., Sirois, D. A., Nemelivsky, L., & Staud, R. (2016). Thermal temporal summation and decay of after-sensations in temporomandibular myofascial pain patients with and without comorbid fibromyalgia. Journal of Pain Research, 9, 641–652.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jensen, M. P., & Karoly, P. (1991). Control beliefs, coping efforts, and adjustment to chronic pain. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(3), 431–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jensen, M. P., Turner, J. A., & Romano, J. M. (1991). Self-efficacy and outcome expectancies: Relationship to chronic pain coping strategies and adjustment. Pain, 44(3), 263–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jensen, M. P., Turner, J. A., Romano, J. M., & Lawler, B. K. (1994). Relationship of pain-specific beliefs to chronic pain adjustment. Pain, 57(3), 301–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. John, M. T., Miglioretti, D. L., LeResche, L., Von Korff, M., & Critchlow, C. W. (2003). Widespread pain as a risk factor for dysfunctional temporomandibular disorder pain. Pain, 102(3), 257–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Jones, D. A., Rollman, G. B., & Brooke, R. I. (1997). The cortisol response to psychological stress in temporomandibular dysfunction. Pain, 72(1–2), 171–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Julien, N., Goffaux, P., Arsenault, P., & Marchand, S. (2005). Widespread pain in fibromyalgia is related to a deficit of endogenous pain inhibition. Pain, 114(1–2), 295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kashima, K., Rahman, O. I., Sakoda, S., & Shiba, R. (1999). Increased pain sensitivity of the upper extremities of TMD patients with myalgia to experimentally-evoked noxious stimulation: Possibility of worsened endogenous opioid systems. Cranio, 17(4), 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Katz, D. L., Greene, L., Ali, A., & Faridi, Z. (2007). The pain of fibromyalgia syndrome is due to muscle hypoperfusion induced by regional vasomotor dysregulation. Medical Hypotheses, 69(3), 517–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kniffki, K., Mense, S., & Schmidt, R. F. (1978). Responses of group IV afferent units from skeletal muscle to stretch, contraction and chemical stimulation. Experimental Brain Research, 31(4), 511–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Komaroff, A. L., & Goldenberg, D. (1989). The chronic fatigue syndrome: Definition, current studies and lessons for fibromyalgia research. The Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement, 19, 23–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Korszun, A., Young, E. A., Singer, K., Carlson, N. E., Brown, M. B., & Crofford, L. (2002). Basal circadian cortisol secretion in women with temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Dental Research, 81(4), 279–283.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Kosek, E., Ekholm, J., & Hansson, P. (1996). Modulation of pressure pain thresholds during and following isometric contraction in patients with fibromyalgia and in healthy controls. Pain, 64(3), 415–423.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Lacasse, A., Bourgault, P., & Choiniere, M. (2016). Fibromyalgia-related costs and loss of productivity: A substantial societal burden. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 17, 168.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Laske, C., Stransky, E., Eschweiler, G. W., Klein, R., Wittorf, A., Leyhe, T., et al. (2007). Increased BDNF serum concentration in fibromyalgia with or without depression or antidepressants. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41(7), 600–605.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Laskin, D., Greenfield, E., Gale, E., Ruth, J., Neff, P., Alling, C., et al. (1983). The President’s conference on the examination, diagnosis and management of temporomandibular disorders. Chicago: American Dental Association.Google Scholar
  95. Lautenbacher, S., & Rollman, G. B. (1997). Possible deficiencies of pain modulation in fibromyalgia. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 13(3), 189–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lautenbacher, S., Rollman, G. B., & McCain, G. A. (1994). Multi-method assessment of experimental and clinical pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Pain, 59(1), 45–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Lawrence, R. C., Felson, D. T., Helmick, C. G., Arnold, L. M., Choi, H., Deyo, R. A., et al. (2008). Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 58(1), 26–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Leblebici, B., Pektas, Z. O., Ortancil, O., Hurcan, E. C., Bagis, S., & Akman, M. N. (2007). Coexistence of fibromyalgia, temporomandibular disorder, and masticatory myofascial pain syndromes. Rheumatology International, 27(6), 541–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Legangneux, E., Mora, J. J., Spreux-Varoquaux, O., Thorin, I., Herrou, M., Alvado, G., et al. (2001). Cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amine metabolites, plasma-rich platelet serotonin and [3H]imipramine reuptake in the primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford), 40(3), 290–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. LeResche, L. (1997). Epidemiology of temporomandibular disorders: Implications for the investigation of etiologic factors. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 8, 291–305.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. LeResche, L., Mancl, L. A., Drangsholt, M. T., Huang, G., & Von Korff, M. (2007). Predictors of onset of facial pain and temporomandibular disorders in early adolescence. Pain, 129(3), 269–278.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Light, K. C., Bragdon, E. E., Grewen, K. M., Brownley, K. A., Girdler, S. S., & Maixner, W. (2009). Adrenergic dysregulation and pain with and without acute beta-blockade in women with fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorder. The Journal of Pain, 10(5), 542–552.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lim, P. F., Smith, S., Bhalang, K., Slade, G. D., & Maixner, W. (2010). Development of temporomandibular disorders is associated with greater bodily pain experience. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 26(2), 116–120.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Litt, M. D., Shafer, D., & Napolitano, C. (2004). Momentary mood and coping processes in TMD pain. Health Psychology, 23(4), 354–362.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Litt, M. D., Shafer, D. M., Ibanez, C. R., Kreutzer, D. L., & Tawfik-Yonkers, Z. (2009). Momentary pain and coping in temporomandibular disorder pain: Exploring mechanisms of cognitive behavioral treatment for chronic pain. Pain, 145(1–2), 160–168.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Loeser, J. D., & Melzack, R. (1999). Pain: An overview. Lancet, 353(9164), 1607–1609.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Macfarlane, T. V., Blinkhorn, A. S., Davies, R. M., Kincey, J., & Worthington, H. V. (2004). Predictors of outcome for orofacial pain in the general population: A four-year follow-up study. Journal of Dental Research, 83(9), 712–717.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Maekawa, K., Clark, G. T., & Kuboki, T. (2002). Intramuscular hypoperfusion, adrenergic receptors, and chronic muscle pain. The Journal of Pain, 3(4), 251–260.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Maekawa, K., Twe, C., Lotaif, A., Chiappelli, F., & Clark, G. T. (2003). Function of beta-adrenergic receptors on mononuclear cells in female patients with fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology, 30(2), 364–368.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Maixner, W., Fillingim, R., Booker, D., & Sigurdsson, A. (1995). Sensitivity of patients with painful temporomandibular disorders to experimentally evoked pain. Pain, 63(3), 341–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Maixner, W., Fillingim, R., Sigurdsson, A., Kincaid, S., & Silva, S. (1998). Sensitivity of patients with painful temporomandibular disorders to experimentally evoked pain: Evidence for altered temporal summation of pain. Pain, 76(1–2), 71–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Maixner, W., Fillingim, R. B., Williams, D. A., Smith, S. B., & Slade, G. D. (2016). Overlapping chronic pain conditions: Implications for diagnosis and classification. The Journal of Pain, 17(9 Suppl), T93–T107.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Manfredini, D., Tognini, F., Montagnani, G., Bazzichi, L., Bombardieri, S., & Bosco, M. (2004). Comparison of masticatory dysfunction in temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia. Minerva Stomatologica, 53(11-12), 641–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mao, J., Stein, R. B., & Osborn, J. W. (1993). Fatigue in Human Jaw Muscles: A Review. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 7, 135–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Martinez-Lavin, M. (2007). Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia. Stress, the stress response system, and fibromyalgia. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 9(4), 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Mayo, K. H., Ellis, E., III, & Carlson, D. S. (1988). Histochemical characteristics of masseter and temporalis muscles after 5 weeks of maxillomandibular fixation- An investigation in Macaca mulatta. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology, 66, 421–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. McCain, G. A., & Tilbe, K. S. (1989). Diurnal hormone variation in fibromyalgia syndrome: A comparison with rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement, 19, 154–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. McLean, S. A., Williams, D. A., Harris, R. E., Kop, W. J., Groner, K. H., Ambrose, K., et al. (2005). Momentary relationship between cortisol secretion and symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 52(11), 3660–3669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Meeus, M., & Nijs, J. (2007). Central sensitization: A biopsychosocial explanation for chronic widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical Rheumatology, 26(4), 465–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Melzack, R. (1971). Phantom limb pain: Concept of a central biasing mechanism. Clinical Neurosurgery, 18, 188–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Melzack, R. (1981). Myofascial trigger points: Relation to acupuncture and mechanisms of pain. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 62(3), 114–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mense, S. (1993). Nociception from skeletal muscle in relation to clinical muscle pain. Pain, 54, 241–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Moldofsky, H. K. (2001). Disordered sleep in fibromyalgia and related myofascial facial pain conditions. Dental Clinics of North America, 45(4), 701–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Nackley, A. G., Tan, K. S., Fecho, K., Flood, P., Diatchenko, L., & Maixner, W. (2007). Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition increases pain sensitivity through activation of both beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptors. Pain, 128(3), 199–208.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Nagakura, Y., Oe, T., Aoki, T., & Matsuoka, N. (2009). Biogenic amine depletion causes chronic muscular pain and tactile allodynia accompanied by depression: A putative animal model of fibromyalgia. Pain, 146(1–2), 26–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. (2014). Facial pain. Available from: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/ FindDataByTopic/FacialPainGoogle Scholar
  127. Ohrbach, R., & Dworkin, S. F. (1998). Five-year outcomes in TMD: Relationship of changes in pain to changes in physical and psychological variables. Pain, 74(2–3), 315–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ohrbach, R., Fillingim, R. B., Mulkey, F., Gonzalez, Y., Gordon, S., Gremillion, H., et al. (2011). Clinical findings and pain symptoms as potential risk factors for chronic TMD: Descriptive data and empirically identified domains from the OPPERA case-control study. The Journal of Pain, 12(11 Suppl), T27–T45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ohrbach, R., Bair, E., Fillingim, R. B., Gonzalez, Y., Gordon, S. M., Lim, P. F., et al. (2013). Clinical orofacial characteristics associated with risk of first-onset TMD: The OPPERA prospective cohort study. The Journal of Pain, 14(12 Suppl), T33–T50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Perry, F., Heller, P. H., Kamiya, J., & Levine, J. D. (1989). Altered autonomic function in patients with arthritis or with chronic myofascial pain. Pain, 39(1), 77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pfau, D. B., Rolke, R., Nickel, R., Treede, R. D., & Daublaender, M. (2009). Somatosensory profiles in subgroups of patients with myogenic temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia syndrome. Pain, 147(1–3), 72–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Pimentel, M. J., Gui, M. S., Martins de Aquino, L. M., & Rizzatti-Barbosa, C. M. (2013). Features of temporomandibular disorders in fibromyalgia syndrome. Cranio, 31(1), 40–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Plesh, O., Wolfe, F., & Lane, N. (1996). The relationship between fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorders: Prevalence and symptom severity. The Journal of Rheumatology, 23(11), 1948–1952.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Poirot, O., Berta, T., Decosterd, I., & Kellenberger, S. (2006). Distinct ASIC currents are expressed in rat putative nociceptors and are modulated by nerve injury. The Journal of Physiology, 576.(Pt 1, 215–234.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Price, D. D., Staud, R., Robinson, M. E., Mauderli, A. P., Cannon, R., & Vierck, C. J. (2002). Enhanced temporal summation of second pain and its central modulation in fibromyalgia patients. Pain, 99(1–2), 49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rammelsberg, P., LeResche, L., Dworkin, S., & Mancl, L. (2003). Longitudinal outcome of temporomandibular disorders: A 5-year epidemiologic study of muscle disorders defined by research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 17(1), 9–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Raphael, K. G., & Marbach, J. J. (2001). Widespread pain and the effectiveness of oral splints in myofascial face pain. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 132(3), 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rhodus, N. L., Fricton, J., Carlson, P., & Messner, R. (2003). Oral symptoms associated with fibromyalgia syndrome. The Journal of Rheumatology, 30(8), 1841–1845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rodriguez de Sotillo, D., Velly, A. M., Hadley, M., & Fricton, J. R. (2011). Evidence of oxidative stress in temporomandibular disorders: A pilot study. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 38(10), 722–728.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rolke, R., Magerl, W., Campbell, K. A., Schalber, C., Caspari, S., Birklein, F., et al. (2006). Quantitative sensory testing: A comprehensive protocol for clinical trials. European Journal of Pain, 10(1), 77–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Russell, I. J. (1989). Neurohormonal aspects of fibromyalgia syndrome. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America, 15(1), 149–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Russell, I. J., Orr, M. D., Littman, B., Vipraio, G. A., Alboukrek, D., Michalek, J. E., et al. (1994). Elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of substance P in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 37(11), 1593–1601.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Salvetti, G., Manfredini, D., Bazzichi, L., & Bosco, M. (2007). Clinical features of the stomatognathic involvement in fibromyalgia syndrome: A comparison with temporomandibular disorders patients. Cranio, 25(2), 127–133.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Sanders, A. E., Slade, G. D., Bair, E., Fillingim, R. B., Knott, C., Dubner, R., et al. (2013). General health status and incidence of first-onset temporomandibular disorder: The OPPERA prospective cohort study. The Journal of Pain, 14(12 Suppl), T51–T62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Sarchielli, P., Mancini, M. L., Floridi, A., Coppola, F., Rossi, C., Nardi, K., et al. (2007). Increased levels of neurotrophins are not specific for chronic migraine: Evidence from primary fibromyalgia syndrome. The Journal of Pain, 8(9), 737–745.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Schiffman, E. L., Fricton, J. R., Haley, D. P., & Shapiro, B. L. (1990). The prevalence and treatment needs of subjects with temporomandibular disorders. Journal of the American Dental Association, 120(3), 295–303.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Schiffman, E., Ohrbach, R., Truelove, E., Look, J., Anderson, G., Goulet, J. P., et al. (2014). Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: Recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Groupdagger. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 28(1), 6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Schmidt, J. E., & Carlson, C. R. (2009). A controlled comparison of emotional reactivity and physiological response in masticatory muscle pain patients. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 23(3), 230–242.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Sessle, B. (1995a). Masticatory muscle disorders: Basic science perspectives. In B. J. Sessle, P. S. Bryant, & R. A. Dionne (Eds.), Temporomandibular disorders and related pain conditions: Progress in pain research and therapy (Vol. 4, pp. 47–61). Seattle: IASP Press.Google Scholar
  150. Sessle, B. (1995b). Brainstem mechanisms of orofacial pain. In J. Fricton & R. Dubner (Eds.), Orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders (pp. 43–60). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  151. Shabalina, S. A., Zaykin, D. V., Gris, P., Ogurtsov, A. Y., Gauthier, J., Shibata, K., et al. (2009). Expansion of the human mu-opioid receptor gene architecture: Novel functional variants. Human Molecular Genetics, 18(6), 1037–1051.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Simons, D. (1990). Muscle pain syndromes. In J. A. E. Fricton (Ed.), Myofascial pain and fibromyalgia (pp. 1–41). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  153. Simons, D. G. (2008). New views of myofascial trigger points: Etiology and diagnosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(1), 157–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Skyba, D. A., King, E. W., & Sluka, K. A. (2002). Effects of NMDA and non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on the development and maintenance of hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline. Pain, 98(1–2), 69–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Skyba, D. A., Lisi, T. L., & Sluka, K. A. (2005). Excitatory amino acid concentrations increase in the spinal cord dorsal horn after repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline. Pain, 119(1–3), 142–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Slade, G. D., Diatchenko, L., Bhalang, K., Sigurdsson, A., Fillingim, R. B., Belfer, I., et al. (2007). Influence of psychological factors on risk of temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Dental Research, 86(11), 1120–1125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Slade, G. D., Smith, S. B., Zaykin, D. V., Tchivileva, I. E., Gibson, D. G., Yuryev, A., et al. (2013). Facial pain with localized and widespread manifestations: Separate pathways of vulnerability. Pain, 154(11), 2335–2343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sluka, K. A., Kalra, A., & Moore, S. A. (2001). Unilateral intramuscular injections of acidic saline produce a bilateral, long-lasting hyperalgesia. Muscle & Nerve, 24(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sluka, K. A., Price, M. P., Breese, N. M., Stucky, C. L., Wemmie, J. A., & Welsh, M. J. (2003). Chronic hyperalgesia induced by repeated acid injections in muscle is abolished by the loss of ASIC3, but not ASIC1. Pain, 106(3), 229–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sluka, K. A., Radhakrishnan, R., Benson, C. J., Eshcol, J. O., Price, M. P., Babinski, K., et al. (2007). ASIC3 in muscle mediates mechanical, but not heat, hyperalgesia associated with muscle inflammation. Pain, 129(1–2), 102–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Solberg Nes, L., Carlson, C. R., Crofford, L. J., de Leeuw, R., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Self-regulatory deficits in fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorders. Pain, 151(1), 37–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Ta, L., Phero, J., Pillemer, S., Hale-Donze, H., McCartney-Francis, N., Kingman, A., et al. (2002). Clinical evaluation of patients with temporomandibular joint implants. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 60(12), 1389–1399.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Travell, J. S. D. (1998). Myofascial pain and dysfunction: The trigger point manual (pp. 63–158). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  164. Truelove, E. L., Sommers, E. E., LeResche, L., Dworkin, S. F., & Von Korff, M. (1992). Clinical diagnostic criteria for TMD. New classification permits multiple diagnoses. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 123(4), 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Turner, J. A., & Aaron, L. A. (2001). Pain-related catastrophizing: What is it? The Clinical Journal of Pain, 17(1), 65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Turner, J. A., Dworkin, S. F., Mancl, L., Huggins, K. H., & Truelove, E. L. (2001). The roles of beliefs, catastrophizing, and coping in the functioning of patients with temporomandibular disorders. Pain, 92(1–2), 41–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Turner, J. A., Brister, H., Huggins, K., Mancl, L., Aaron, L. A., & Truelove, E. L. (2005). Catastrophizing is associated with clinical examination findings, activity interference, and health care use among patients with temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 19(4), 291–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Uhlig, Y. (1995). Fiber composition and fiber transformation in neck muscles of patients with dysfunction of the cervical spine. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 13, 240–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Vaeroy, H., Helle, R., Forre, O., Kass, E., & Terenius, L. (1988). Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromyalgia: New features for diagnosis. Pain, 32(1), 21–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Velly, A. M., Gornitsky, M., & Philippe, P. (2002). A case-control study of temporomandibular disorders: Symptomatic disc displacement. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 29(5), 408–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Velly, A. M., Gornitsky, M., & Philippe, P. (2003). Contributing factors to chronic myofascial pain: A case-control study. Pain, 104(3), 491–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Velly, A. M., Look, J. O., Schiffman, E., Lenton, P. A., Kang, W., Messner, R. P., et al. (2010). The effect of fibromyalgia and widespread pain on the clinically significant temporomandibular muscle and joint pain disorders--a prospective 18-month cohort study. The Journal of Pain, 11(11), 1155–1164.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Von Korff, M., Dworkin, S. F., Le Resche, L., & Kruger, A. (1988). An epidemiologic comparison of pain complaints. Pain, 32(2), 173–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Von Korff, M., Le Resche, L., & Dworkin, S. F. (1993). First onset of common pain symptoms: A prospective study of depression as a risk factor. Pain, 55(2), 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Wolfe, F., Hawley, D. J., Cathey, M. A., Caro, X., & Russell, I. J. (1985). Fibrositis: Symptom frequency and criteria for diagnosis. An evaluation of 291 rheumatic disease patients and 58 normal individuals. The Journal of Rheumatology, 12(6), 1159–1163.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Wolfe, F., Smythe, H. A., Yunus, M. B., Bennett, R. M., Bombardier, C., Goldenberg, D. L., et al. (1990). The American College of Rheumatology 1990. Criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 33(2), 160–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wolfe, F., Ross, K., Anderson, J., Russell, I. J., & Hebert, L. (1995). The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 38(1), 19–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Wolfe, F., Anderson, J., Harkness, D., Bennett, R. M., Caro, X. J., Goldenberg, D. L., et al. (1997a). Work and disability status of persons with fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology, 24(6), 1171–1178.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Wolfe, F., Anderson, J., Harkness, D., Bennett, R. M., Caro, X. J., Goldenberg, D. L., et al. (1997b). A prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study of service utilization and costs in fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 40(9), 1560–1570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Wolfe, F., Clauw, D. J., Fitzcharles, M. A., Goldenberg, D. L., Katz, R. S., Mease, P., et al. (2010). The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care and Research, 62(5), 600–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Wolfe, F., Clauw, D. J., Fitzcharles, M. A., Goldenberg, D. L., Hauser, W., Katz, R. S., et al. (2011). Fibromyalgia criteria and severity scales for clinical and epidemiological studies: A modification of the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology, 38(6), 1113–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Wolfe, F., Clauw, D. J., Fitzcharles, M. A., Goldenberg, D. L., Hauser, W., Katz, R. L., et al. (2016). 2016 Revisions to the 2010/2011 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 46(3), 319–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Woolf, C. J. (2010). Central sensitization: Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Pain, 152(3 Suppl), S2–S15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Wright, A. R., Gatchel, R. J., Wildenstein, L., Riggs, R., Buschang, P., & Ellis, E., 3rd. (2004). Biopsychosocial differences between high-risk and low-risk patients with acute TMD-related pain. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939), 135(4), 474–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yunus, M. B. (1992). Towards a model of pathophysiology of fibromyalgia: Aberrant central pain mechanisms with peripheral modulation. The Journal of Rheumatology, 19(6), 846–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Yunus, M. B., Kalyan-Raman, U. P., Kalyan-Raman, K., & Masi, A. T. (1986). Pathologic changes in muscle in primary fibromyalgia syndrome. The American Journal of Medicine, 81(3A), 38–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. Zubieta, J. K., Heitzeg, M. M., Smith, Y. R., Bueller, J. A., Xu, K., Xu, Y., et al. (2003). COMT val158met genotype affects mu-opioid neurotransmitter responses to a pain stressor. Science, 299(5610), 1240–1243.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana M. Velly
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hong Chen
    • 2
  • João R. Ferreira
    • 3
  • Shrisha Mohit
    • 1
  • Maria Martha B. Tarozzo
    • 1
  • James R. Fricton
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Dentistry, Jewish General Hospital, Faculty of DentistryMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  2. 2.University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill, School of DentistryChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.NC Oral Health InstituteSchool of Dentistry, UNC-Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations