Advertisement

Placebo and Nocebo Effects

  • Maxie Blasini
  • Nicole Corsi
  • Luana CollocaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The placebo and nocebo phenomena are formed through a complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors that prevail in every clinical and healthcare setting. Different modulatory systems involving endogenous opioid, oxytocin, vasopressin, dopamine, and cannabinoid activity, as well as other neuropeptides regulating anxiety and stress-related behaviors, have been found to be key players in the development of placebo and nocebo effects. These events are primarily driven by the formation of positive or negative expectancies. Expectancies are shaped through various forms of learning, inclusive of social observation, instructional learning and verbal suggestions, as well as conditioning, and can also be influenced by individual factors related to personality traits and genetics. Clinical engagement of placebo effects has been shown to have effects in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, Parkinson’s, and depression. The palliative care setting is highly impacted by psychosocial distress, pain, depression, and nausea, aspects that can be strongly modulated through placebo effects and endogenous modulatory systems. Nonetheless, investigative limitations exist in this setting due to ethical considerations that must be taken during end-of-life care and the use of placebos. Despite these constraints, practical strategies can be taken to help enhance important contextual factors that when integrated to the therapeutic environment can significantly improve outcomes.

Keywords

Palliative care Nausea Depression Pain End-of-life care Expectancy Conditioning 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the University of Maryland, Baltimore (LC), and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR, R01DE025946, LC).

References

  1. Ader, R., Mercurio, M. G., Walton, J., James, D., Davis, M., Ojha, V., et al. (2010). Conditioned pharmacotherapeutic effects: A preliminary study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(2), 192–197.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181cbd38b.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, H. M. (2007). Toward a biopsychosocial understanding of the patient–physician relationship: An emerging dialogue. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(2), 280–285.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-006-0037-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Agar, M. R., Lawlor, P. G., Quinn, S., Draper, B., Caplan, G. A., Rowett, D., et al. (2017). Efficacy of oral risperidone, haloperidol, or placebo for symptoms of delirium among patients in palliative care. JAMA Internal Medicine, 177(1), 34.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.7491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akechi, T., Okuyama, T., Sugawara, Y., Nakano, T., Shima, Y., & Uchitomi, Y. (2004). Major depression, adjustment disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder in terminally ill cancer patients: Associated and predictive factors. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 1957–1965.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.08.149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Albring, A., Wendt, L., Benson, S., Nissen, S., Yavuz, Z., Engler, H., et al. (2014). Preserving learned immunosuppressive placebo response: Perspectives for clinical application. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 96(2), 247–255.  https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2014.75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Albu, S., & Meagher, M. W. (2016). Expectation of nocebo hyperalgesia affects EEG alpha-activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 109, 147–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.08.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Amanzio, M., & Benedetti, F. (1999). Neuropharmacological dissection of placebo analgesia: Expectation-activated opioid systems versus conditioning-activated specific subsystems. The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 19(1), 484–94. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8875378
  8. Amsterdam, E. A., Wolfson, S., & Gorlin, R. (1969). New aspects of the placebo response in angina pectoris. The American Journal of Cardiology, 24, 305–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Archer, T. P., & Leier, C. V. (1992). Placebo treatment in congestive heart failure. Cardiology, 81(2–3), 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aslaksen, P. M., & Lyby, P. S. (2015). Fear of pain potentiates nocebo hyperalgesia. Journal of Pain Research, 8, 703–710.  https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S91923.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Au Yeung, S. T., Colagiuri, B., Lovibond, P. F., & Colloca, L. (2014). Partial reinforcement, extinction, and placebo analgesia. Pain, 155(6), 1110–1117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2014.02.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Balk, J., Day, R., Rosenzweig, M., & Beriwal, S. (2009). Pilot, randomized, modified, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, 7(1), 4–11. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19476729
  13. Bartels, D. J., et al. (2014). Role of conditioning and verbal suggestion in placebo and nocebo effects on Itch. PLoS One, 9(3), e91727.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091727.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Beecher, H. K. (1955). The powerful placebo. Journal of the American Medical Association, 159(17), 1602.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1955.02960340022006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Benedetti, F. (2008). Mechanisms of placebo and placebo-related effects across diseases and treatments. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 48(1), 33–60. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.48.113006. 094711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Benedetti, F. (2010). The patient’s brain: The neuroscience behind the doctor–patient relationship. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Benedetti, F. (2012). The placebo response: Science versus ethics and the vulnerability of the patient. World Psychiatry, 11, 70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpsyc.2012.05.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Benedetti,~F.~(2014).~Placebo~effects:~from~the~neurobiological~paradigm~to~translational~implications. Neuron, 84(3), 623–637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron. 2014.10.023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Benedetti, F., Amanzio, M., Casadio, C., Oliaro, A., & Maggi, G. (1997). Blockade of nocebo hyperalgesia by the cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide. Pain, 71(2), 135–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(97)03346-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Benedetti, F., Amanzio, M., Vighetti, S., & Asteggiano, G. (2006). The biochemical and neuroendocrine bases of the hyperalgesic nocebo effect. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(46), 12014–12022.  https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2947-06.2006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Benedetti, F., Lanotte, M., Lopiano, L., & Colloca, L. (2007). When words are painful: Unraveling the mechanisms of the nocebo effect. Neuroscience, 147, 260.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.02.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Benedetti, F., Amanzio, M., Rosato, R., & Blanchard, C. (2011). Nonopioid placebo analgesia is mediated by CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Nature Medicine, 17(10), 1228–1230.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.2435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bernat, J. L. (2001). Ethical and legal issues in palliative care. Neurologic Clinics, 19(4), 969–987. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=11854109
  24. Bialik, R. J., Ravindran, A. V., Bakish, D., & Lapierre, Y. D. (1995). A comparison of placebo responders and nonresponders in subgroups of depressive disorder. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN, 20(4), 265–270. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7647079
  25. Bingel, U., Lorenz, J., Schoell, E., Weiller, C., & Büchel, C. (2006). Mechanisms of placebo analgesia: rACC recruitment of a subcortical antinociceptive network. Pain, 120(1–2), 8–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2005.08.027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bingel, U., Wanigasekera, V., Wiech, K., Ni Mhuircheartaigh, R., Lee, M. C., Ploner, M., & Tracey, I. (2011). The effect of treatment expectation on drug efficacy: Imaging the analgesic benefit of the opioid remifentanil. Science Translational Medicine, 3(70), 70ra14-70ra14.  https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3001244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Blasini, M., Corsi, N., Klinger, R., & Colloca, L. (2017). Nocebo and pain: An overview of the psychoneurobiological mechanisms. Pain Reports, 0, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PR9.0000000000000585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Block, S. D. (2006). Psychological issues in end-of-life care. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(3), 751–772.  https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2006.9.751.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Boersma, I., Miyasaki, J., Kutner, J., & Kluger, B. (2014). Palliative care and neurology: Time for a paradigm shift. Neurology, 83(6), 561–567.  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000674.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Boettger, S., & Jenewein, J. (2017). Placebo might be superior to antipsychotics in management of delirium in the palliative care setting. Evidence-Based Medicine, 22(4), 152–153.  https://doi.org/10.1136/ebmed-2017-110723.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Brown, W. A., Johnson, M. F., & Chen, M. G. (1992). Clinical features of depressed patients who do and do not improve with placebo. Psychiatry Research, 41(3), 203–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(92)90002-K.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bruera, E., Roca, E., Cedaro, L., Carraro, S., & Chacon, R. (1985). Action of oral methylprednisolone in terminal cancer patients: A prospective randomized double-blind study. Cancer Treatment Reports, 69(7–8), 751–754. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2410117
  33. Bruera, E., Valero, V., Driver, L., Shen, L., Willey, J., Zhang, T., & Palmer, J. L. (2006). Patient-controlled methylphenidate for cancer fatigue: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 24(13), 2073–2078.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.02.8506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bunting-Perry, L. K. (2006). Palliative care in Parkinson’s disease: Implications for neuroscience nursing. The Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, 38(2), 106–113.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01376517-200604000-00006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Carvalho, C., Caetano, J. M., Cunha, L., Rebouta, P., Kaptchuk, T. J., & Kirsch, I. (2016). Open-label placebo treatment in chronic low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. Pain, 157(12), 2766–2772.  https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000700.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Chao, L.-F., Zhang, A. L., Liu, H.-E., Cheng, M.-H., Lam, H.-B., & Lo, S. K. (2009). The efficacy of acupoint stimulation for the management of therapy-related adverse events in patients with breast cancer: A systematic review. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 118(2), 255–267.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-009-0533-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Charlesworth, J. E. G., Petkovic, G., Kelley, J. M., Hunter, M., Onakpoya, I., Roberts, N., et al. (2017). Effects of placebos without deception compared with no treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 10(2), 97–107.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jebm.12251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen, H.-Y., Li, S.-G., Cho, W. C., & Zhang, Z.-J. (2013). The role of acupoint stimulation as an adjunct therapy for lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), 362.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-362.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Cheon, S., Zhang, X., Lee, I.-S., Cho, S.-H., Chae, Y., & Lee, H. (2014). Pharmacopuncture for cancer care: A systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 2014, 804746.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/804746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chvetzoff, G., & Tannock, I. F. (2003). Placebo effects in oncology. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 95(1), 19–29.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/95.1.19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Colagiuri, B., Quinn, V. F., & Colloca, L. (2015a). Nocebo hyperalgesia, partial reinforcement, and extinction. Journal of Pain, 16(10), 995–1004.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2015.06.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Colagiuri, B., Schenk, L. A., Kessler, M. D., Dorsey, S. G., & Colloca, L. (2015b). The placebo effect: From concepts to genes. Neuroscience, 307, 171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.08.017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Colloca, L. (2017a). Nocebo effects can make you feel pain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 358(6359), 44.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap8488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Colloca, L. (2017b). Tell me the truth and I will not be harmed: Informed consents and nocebo effects. American Journal of Bioethics, 17, 46.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2017.1314057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Colloca, L. (2017c). Treatment of pediatric migraine. The New England Journal of Medicine, 376(14), 1387–1388.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1701674.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Colloca, L., & Benedetti, F. (2005). Placebos and painkillers: Is mind as real as matter? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(7), 545–552.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Colloca, L., & Benedetti, F. (2006). How prior experience shapes placebo analgesia. Pain, 124(1–2), 126–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2006.04.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Colloca, L., & Benedetti, F. (2007). Nocebo hyperalgesia: How anxiety is turned into pain. Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, 20(5), 435–439.  https://doi.org/10.1097/ACO.0b013e3282b972fb.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Colloca, L., & Benedetti, F. (2009). Placebo analgesia induced by social observational learning. Pain, 144(1–2), 28–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2009.01.033.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Colloca, L., & Finniss, D. (2012). Nocebo effects, patient-clinician communication, and therapeutic outcomes. JAMA, 307(6), 567–568.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Colloca, L., & Grillon, C. (2014). Understanding placebo and nocebo responses for pain management. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 18(6), 419.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-014-0419-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Colloca, L., & Miller, F. G. (2011a). How placebo responses are formed: A learning perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 366(1572), 1859–1869.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0398.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Colloca, L., & Miller, F. G. (2011b). The nocebo effect and its relevance for clinical practice. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(7), 598–603.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182294a50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Colloca, L., Lopiano, L., Lanotte, M., & Benedetti, F. (2004). Overt versus covert treatment for pain, anxiety, and Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurology, 3, 679.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(04)00908-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Colloca, L., Sigaudo, M., & Benedetti, F. (2008a). The role of learning in nocebo and placebo effects. Pain, 136(1–2), 211–218.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2008.02.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Colloca, L., Tinazzi, M., Recchia, S., Le Pera, D., Fiaschi, A., Benedetti, F., & Valeriani, M. (2008b). Learning potentiates neurophysiological and behavioral placebo analgesic responses. Pain, 139(2), 306–314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2008.04.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Colloca, L., Petrovic, P., Wager, T. D., Ingvar, M., & Benedetti, F. (2010). How the number of learning trials affects placebo and nocebo responses. Pain, 151(2), 430–439.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.08.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Colloca, L., Miller, F. G., Harrington, A., Miller, F. G., Colloca, L., Peirce, C., et al. (2011). How placebo responses are formed: A learning perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1572), 5–1869.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Colloca, L., Klinger, R., Flor, H., & Bingel, U. (2013). Placebo analgesia: Psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. Pain, 154, 511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.02.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Colloca, L., Enck, P., & DeGrazia, D. (2016a). Relieving pain using dose-extending placebos. Pain, 157(July), 1.  https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Colloca, L., Pine, D. S., Ernst, M., Miller, F. G., & Grillon, C. (2016b). Vasopressin boosts placebo analgesic effects in women: A randomized trial. Biological Psychiatry, 79(10), 794–802.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.07.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Corsi, N., & Colloca, L. (2017). Placebo and nocebo effects: The advantage of measuring expectations and psychological factors. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(Mar).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00308.
  63. Corsi, N., Emadi Andani, M., Tinazzi, M., & Fiorio, M. (2016). Changes in perception of treatment efficacy are associated to the magnitude of the nocebo effect and to personality traits. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 30671.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep30671.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Creutzfeldt, C. J., Gooley, T., & Walker, M. (2009). Are neurology residents prepared to deal with dying patients? JAMA Neurology, 66(11), 1427–1429.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurol.2009.241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Curt, G. A., Breitbart, W., Cella, D., Groopman, J. E., Horning, S. J., Itri, L. M., … Vogelzang, N. J. (2000). Impact of cancer-related fatigue on the lives of patients: New findings from the Fatigue Coalition. The Oncologist, 5(5), 353–360. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11040270 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Deng, G. E., Chan, Y., Yeung, K. S., Vickers, A. J., & Cassileth, B. R. (2011). Acupuncture for chemotherapy-induced fatigue: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 29(15_suppl), 9029–9029.  https://doi.org/10.1200/jco.2011.29.15_suppl.9029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Derogatis, L. R., Morrow, G. R., Fetting, J., Penman, D., Piasetsky, S., Schmale, A. M., et al. (1983). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 249(6), 751–757.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1983.03330300035030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Downey, L., & Engelberg, R. A. (2010). Quality-of-life trajectories at the end of life: Assessments over time by patients with and without cancer. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 58(3), 472–479.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02734.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Doyle, D., Hanks, G. W. C., & MacDonald, N. (1994). Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Eippert, F., Bingel, U., Schoell, E. D., Yacubian, J., Klinger, R., Lorenz, J., & Büchel, C. (2009). Activation of the opioidergic descending pain control system underlies placebo analgesia. Neuron, 63(4), 533–543.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2009.07.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Elsenbruch, S., Kotsis, V., Benson, S., Rosenberger, C., Reidick, D., Schedlowski, M., et al. (2012). Neural mechanisms mediating the effects of expectation in visceral placebo analgesia: An fMRI study in healthy placebo responders and nonresponders. Pain, 153(2), 382–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2011.10.036.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Enserink, M. (1999). Can the placebo be the cure? Science, 289, 238–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Evers, A. W. M., Bartels, D. J. P., & Van Laarhoven, A. I. M. (2014). Placebo and nocebo effects in itch and pain. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 225, 205–214.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44519-8_12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Faasse, K., Grey, A., Jordan, R., Garland, S., & Petrie, K. J. (2015). Seeing is believing: Impact of social modeling on placebo and nocebo responding. Health Psychology, 34(8), 880–885.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Farrar, J. T., Cleary, J., Rauck, R., Busch, M., & Nordbrock, E. (1998). Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial for treatment of breakthrough pain in Cancer patients. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 90(8), 611–616.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/90.8.611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Feliu, J., González-Barón, M., Berrocal, A., Artal, A., Ordóñez, A., Garrido, P., et al. (1992). Usefulness of megestrol acetate in cancer cachexia and anorexia. American Journal of Clinical Oncology, 15(5), 436–440.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00000421-199210000-00008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Feng, C., Hackett, P. D., DeMarco, A. C., Chen, X., Stair, S., Haroon, E., et al. (2015). Oxytocin and vasopressin effects on the neural response to social cooperation are modulated by sex in humans. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 9(4), 754–764.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11682-014-9333-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Fine, P. G. (2003). Maximizing benefits and minimizing risks in palliative care research that involves patients near the end of life. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 25(4), S53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-3924(03)00056-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Finniss, D. G., Kaptchuk, T. J., Miller, F., Benedetti, F., Aronson, J., Kaptchuk, T., et al. (2010). Biological, clinical, and ethical advances of placebo effects. Lancet (London, UK), 375(9715), 686–695.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61706-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Frisaldi, E., Shaibani, A., & Benedetti, F. (2017). Why we should assess patients’ expectations in clinical trials. Pain and Therapy, 6(1), 107–110.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40122-017-0071-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Geers, A. L., Helfer, S. G., Kosbab, K., Weiland, P. E., & Landry, S. J. (2005). Reconsidering the role of personality in placebo effects: Dispositional optimism, situational expectations, and the placebo response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58(2), 121–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.08.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Geers, A. L., Kosbab, K., Helfer, S. G., Weiland, P. E., & Wellman, J. A. (2007). Further evidence for individual differences in placebo responding: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62(5), 563–570.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.12.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Geers, A. L., Wellman, J. A., Fowler, S. L., Helfer, S. G., & France, C. R. (2010). Dispositional optimism predicts placebo analgesia. Journal of Pain, 11(11), 1165–1171.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2010.02.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Goldberg, R. M., Loprinzi, C. L., Mailliard, J. A., O’Fallon, J. R., Krook, J. E., Ghosh, C., et al. (1995). Pentoxifylline for treatment of cancer anorexia and cachexia? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 13(11), 2856–2859.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.1995.13.11.2856.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gould, B., Mann, S., Davies, A., Altman, D., & Raftery, E. (1981). Does placebo lower blood pressure? Lancet, 2, 1377–1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gracely, R., Dubner, R., Deeter, W., & Wolskee, P. (1985). Clinicians’ expectations influence placebo analgesia. The Lancet, 325, 43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(85)90984-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gramling, R., Stanek, S., Han, P. K. J., Duberstein, P., Quill, T. E., Temel, J. S., Alexander, S. C., Anderson, W. G., et al. (2017). Distress due to prognostic uncertainty in palliative care: Frequency, distribution, and outcomes among hospitalized patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Palliative Medicine.  https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2017.0285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Guo, J. Y., Yuan, X. Y., Sui, F., Zhang, W. C., Wang, J. Y., Luo, F., & Luo, J. (2011). Placebo analgesia affects the behavioral despair tests and hormonal secretions in mice. Psychopharmacology, 217(1), 83–90.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-011-2259-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hall, K. T., Loscalzo, J., & Kaptchuk, T. J. (2015). Genetics and the placebo effect: The placebome. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 21, 285–294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2015.02.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Hansson, L., Aberg, H., Karlberg, B. E., & Westerlund, A. (1975). Controlled study of atenolol in treatment of hypertension. British Medical Journal, 2(5967), 367–370.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5967.367.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Hay, J. L., & Passik, S. D. (2000). The cancer patient with borderline personality disorder: Suggestions for symptom-focused management in the medical setting. Psycho-Oncology, 9, 91. https://doi.org/10.1002/ (SICI)1099-1611(200003/04)9:2<91::AID-PON437> 3.0.CO;2-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Heyes, C. M. (1994). Social learning in animals: categories and mechanisms. Biological Reviews, 69, 207–231. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1994. tb01506.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hosie, A., Davidson, P. M., Agar, M., Sanderson, C. R., & Phillips, J. (2013). Delirium prevalence, incidence, and implications for screening in specialist palliative care inpatient settings: A systematic review. Palliative Medicine, 27(6), 486–498.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216312457214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hosie, A., Agar, M., Lobb, E., Davidson, P. M., & Phillips, J. (2014). Palliative care nurses’ recognition and assessment of patients with delirium symptoms: A qualitative study using critical incident technique. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(10), 1353–1365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.02.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hotopf, M., Chidgey, J., Addington-Hall, J., & Lan Ly, K. (2002). Depression in advanced disease: A systematic review part 1. Prevalence and case finding. Palliative Medicine, 16, 81–97.  https://doi.org/10.1191/02169216302pm507oa.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Howe, L. C., Goyer, J. P., & Crum, A. J. (2017). Harnessing the placebo effect: Exploring the influence of physician characteristics on placebo response. Health Psychology, 36, 1074.  https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Huber, A., Lui, F., & Porro, C. A. (2013). Hypnotic susceptibility modulates brain activity related to experimental placebo analgesia. Pain, 154(9), 1509–1518.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.03.031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Iacoboni, M. (2009). Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 653–670. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707. 163604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kaptchuk, T. J., & Miller, F. G. (2015). Placebo effects in medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(1), 8–9.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1504023.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kaptchuk, T. J., Friedlander, E., Kelley, J. M., Sanchez, M. N., Kokkotou, E., Singer, J. P., et al. (2010). Placebos without deception: A randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One, 5(12), e15591.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015591.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Kessner, S., Sprenger, C., Wrobel, N., Wiech, K., & Bingel, U. (2013). Effect of oxytocin on placebo analgesia. JAMA, 310(16), 1733.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.277446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Khan, A., Leventhal, R. M., Khan, S. R., & Brown, W. A. (2002). Severity of depression and response to antidepressants and placebo: An analysis of the Food and Drug Administration database. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22(1), 40–45.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004714-200202000-00007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kirsch, I., & Sapirstein, G. (1998). Listening to Prozac but hearing placebo: A meta-analysis of antidepressant medication. Prevention & Treatment, 1(2), 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1522-3736.1.1.12a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kirsch, I., Lynn, S. J., Vigorito, M., & Miller, R. R. (2004). The role of cognition in classical and operant conditioning. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60(4), 369–392.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kirsch, I., Deacon, B. J., Huedo-Medina, T. B., Scoboria, A., Moore, T. J., & Johnson, B. T. (2008). Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Medicine, 5(2), 0260–0268.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Klinger, R., Soost, S., Flor, H., & Worm, M. (2007). Classical conditioning and expectancy in placebo hypoalgesia: A randomized controlled study in patients with atopic dermatitis and persons with healthy skin. Pain, 128(1–2), 31–39.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2006.08.025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Klinger, R., Blasini, M., Schmitz, J., & Colloca, L. (2017). Nocebo effects in clinical studies: Hints for pain therapy. Pain Reports, 0, 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PR9.0000000000000586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kosugi, T., Hamada, S., Takigawa, C., Shinozaki, K., Kunikane, H., Goto, F., et al. (2014). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fentanyl buccal tablets for breakthrough pain: Efficacy and safety in Japanese cancer patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 47(6), 990–1000.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lanoix, M. (2009). Palliative care and Parkinson’s disease: Managing the chronic-palliative interface. Chronic Illness, 5(1), 46–55.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1742395309102819.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lawlor, P. G., Gagnon, B., Mancini, I. L., Pereira, J. L., Hanson, J., Suarez-Almazor, M. E., & Bruera, E. D. (2000). Occurrence, causes, and outcome of delirium in patients with advanced cancer: A prospective study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(6), 786–794.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.6.786.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Levine, J. D., Gordon, N. C., & Fields, H. L. (1978). The mechanism of placebo analgesia. Lancet (London, UK), 2(8091), 654–657. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/80579
  112. Locher, C., Nascimento, A. F., Kirsch, I., Kossowsky, J., Meyer, A., & Gaab, J. (2017). Is the rationale more important than deception? A randomized controlled trial of openlabel placebo analgesia. PAIN, 1.  https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lucas, V., & Booth, S. (2014). The importance of placebo effects in enhancing palliative care interventions. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, 4(2), 212–216.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2013-000571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lui, F., Colloca, L., Duzzi, D., Anchisi, D., Benedetti, F., & Porro, C. A. (2010). Neural bases of conditioned placebo analgesia. Pain, 151(3), 816–824.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.09.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Massie, M. J. (2004). Prevalence of depression in patients with cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs, 2004(32), 57–71.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jncimonographs/lgh014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Massie, M. J., & Holland, J. C. (1990). Depression and the cancer patient. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 51, 12–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mazzoni, G., Foan, L., Hyland, M. E., & Kirsch, I. (2010). The effects of observation and gender on psychogenic symptoms. Health Psychology, 29(2), 181–185.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017860.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. McCarthy, M., Lay, M., & Addington-Hall, J. (1996). Dying from heart disease. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 30(4), 325–328 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8875378.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. McDaniel, J. S., Musselman, D. L., Porter, M. R., Reed, D. A., & Nemeroff, C. B. (1995). Depression in patients with cancer. Diagnosis, biology, and treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52(2), 89–99.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950140007002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Domes, G., Kirsch, P., & Heinrichs, M. (2011). Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: Social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12(9), 524–538.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3044.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Miller, F. G., & Colloca, L. (2011). The placebo phenomenon and medical ethics: Rethinking the relationship between informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 32(4), 229–243.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11017-011-9179-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Moertel, C. G., Taylor, W. F., Roth, A., & Tyce, F. A. (1976). Who responds to sugar pills? Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 51(2), 96–100 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1107683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Molassiotis, A., Bardy, J., Finnegan-John, J., Mackereth, P., Ryder, D. W., Filshie, J., et al. (2012). Acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue in patients with breast cancer: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(36), 4470–4476.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.41.6222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mondaini, N., Gontero, P., Giubilei, G., Lombardi, G., Cai, T., Gavazzi, A., & Bartoletti, R. (2007). Finasteride 5 mg and sexual side effects: How many of these are related to a nocebo phenomenon? The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 4(6), 1708–1712.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00563.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Morrow, G. R., Hickok, J. T., Roscoe, J. A., Raubertas, R. F., Andrews, P. L. R., Flynn, P. J., et al. (2003). Differential effects of paroxetine on fatigue and depression: a randomized, double-blind trial from the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 21(24), 4635–4641.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.04.070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Morrow, G. R., Shelke, A. R., Roscoe, J. A., Hickok, J. T., & Mustian, K. (2005). Management of cancer-related fatigue. Cancer Investigation, 23(3), 229–239. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15945509
  127. Morton, D. L., Brown, C. A., Watson, A., El-Deredy, W., & Jones, A. K. P. (2010a). Cognitive changes as a result of a single exposure to placebo. Neuropsychologia, 48(7), 1958–1964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.03.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Morton, D. L., El-Deredy, W., Watson, A., & Jones, A. K. P. (2010b). Placebo analgesia as a case of a cognitive style driven by prior expectation. Brain Research, 1359, 137–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.08.046.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Moutsos, S., Sapira, J., Scheib, E., & Shapiro, A. (1967). An analysis of the placebo effect in hospitalized hypertensive patients. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 8, 676–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Oliver, D., & Silber, E. (2013). End of life care in neurological disease. London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Olsson, A., & Phelps, E. A. (2007). Social learning of fear. Nature Neuroscience, 10(9), 1095–1102.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Ortiz, R., Chandros Hull, S., & Colloca, L. (2016). Patient attitudes about the clinical use of placebo: Qualitative perspectives from a telephone survey. BMJ Open, 6(4), e011012.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-011012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Peciña, M., Azhar, H., Love, T. M., Lu, T., Fredrickson, B. L., Stohler, C. S., & Zubieta, J.-K. (2013). Personality trait predictors of placebo analgesia and neurobiological correlates. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(4), 639–646.  https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2012.227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Pelletier, G., Verhoef, M. J., Khatri, N., & Hagen, N. (2002). Quality of life in brain tumor patients: The relative contributions of depression, fatigue, emotional distress, and existential issues. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 57(1), 41–49.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015728825642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Pollo, A., Carlino, E., & Benedetti, F. (2008). The top-down influence of ergogenic placebos on muscle work and fatigue. European Journal of Neuroscience, 28(2), 379–388.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06344.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Pollo, A., Carlino, E., Vase, L., & Benedetti, F. (2012). Preventing motor training through nocebo suggestions. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(11), 3893–3903.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2333-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Porro, C. A. (2009). Open your mind to placebo conditioning. Pain, 145(1–2), 2–3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2009.06.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Portenoy, R. K., Taylor, D., Messina, J., & Tremmel, L. (2006). A randomized, placebo-controlled study of fentanyl buccal tablet for breakthrough pain in opioid-treated patients with cancer. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 22(9), 805–811.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ajp.0000210932.27945.4a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Pu, H. h., Yu, T., Gao, X., & Mao, J. J. (2010). Systematic evaluation on clinical therapetic effect of acupuncture for treatment of gastrointestinal untoward reaction by malignant tumor chemotherapy. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research [Chinese], 21, 1476–1480.  https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1008-0805.2010.06.087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rauck, R. L., Tark, M., Reyes, E., Hayes, T. G., Bartkowiak, A. J., Hassman, D., et al. (2009). Efficacy and long-term tolerability of sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablet in the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 25(12), 2877–2885.  https://doi.org/10.1185/03007990903368310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Rauck, R., North, J., Gever, L. N., Tagarro, I., & Finn, A. L. (2010). Fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 21(6), 1308–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdp541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Reicherts, P., Gerdes, A. B. M., Pauli, P., & Wieser, M. J. (2016). Psychological placebo and nocebo effects on pain rely on expectation and previous experience. Journal of Pain, 17(2), 203–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2015.10.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Rescorla, R., & Wagner, A. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In F. P. William & A. H. Black (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory. New York: Apleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  144. Saunders, C. (1978). The philosophy of terminal care. In The management of terminal disease (1st ed., pp. 193–202). London: Edward Arnold. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570530.00 3.0023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Schedlowski, M., Enck, P., Rief, W., & Bingel, U. (2015). Neuro-bio-behavioral mechanisms of placebo and nocebo responses: Implications for clinical trials and clinical practice. Pharmacological Reviews, 67(3), 697–730.  https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.114.009423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Scott, D. J., Stohler, C. S., Egnatuk, C. M., Wang, H., Koeppe, R. A., & Zubieta, J.-K. (2008). Placebo and nocebo effects are defined by opposite opioid and dopaminergic responses. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(2), 220.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2007.34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Staats, P. S., Staats, A., & Hekmat, H. (2001). The additive impact of anxiety and a placebo on pain. Pain Medicine, 2(4), 267–279.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-4637.2001.01046.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Stein, D. J., Baldwin, D. S., Dolberg, O. T., Despiegel, N., & Bandelow, B. (2006). Which factors predict placebo response in anxiety disorders and major depression? An analysis of placebo-controlled studies of escitalopram. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(11), 1741–1746.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v67n1111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Stewart-Williams, S., & Podd, J. (2004). The placebo effect: Dissolving the expectancy versus conditioning debate. Psychological Bulletin, 130(2), 324–340.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.2.324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Stommel, M., Given, B. A., & Given, C. W. (2002). Depression and functional status as predictors of death among cancer patients. Cancer, 94(10), 2719–2727.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.10533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Świder, K., & Ba̧bel, P. (2013). The effect of the sex of a model on nocebo hyperalgesia induced by social observational learning. Pain, 154(8), 1312–1317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Tekampe, J., Van Middendorp, H., Meeuwis, S. H., Van Leusden, J. W. R., Pacheco-López, G., Hermus, A. R. M. M., & Evers, A. W. M. (2017). Conditioning immune and endocrine parameters in humans: A systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 8686.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000449470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Van Laarhoven, A. I. M., Vogelaar, M. L., Wilder-Smith, O. H., Van Riel, P. L. C. M., Van De Kerkhof, P. C. M., Kraaimaat, F. W., & Evers, A. W. M. (2011). Induction of nocebo and placebo effects on itch and pain by verbal suggestions. Pain, 152(7), 1486–1494.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.043.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Varelmann, D., Pancaro, C., Cappiello, E. C., & Camann, W. R. (2010). Nocebo-induced hyperalgesia during local anesthetic injection. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 110(3), 868–870.  https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181cc5727.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Vögtle, E., Barke, A., & Kröner-Herwig, B. (2013). Nocebo hyperalgesia induced by social observational learning. Pain, 154(8), 1427–1433.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Vögtle, E., Kröner-Herwig, B., & Barke, A. (2016). Nocebo hyperalgesia: Contributions of social observation and body-related cognitive styles. Journal of Pain Research, 9, 241–249.  https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S96228.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Voudouris, N. J., Peck, C. L., & Coleman, G. (1985). Conditioned placebo responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 47–53.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.1.47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Wager, T. D., Rilling, J. K., Smith, E. E., Sokolik, A., Casey, K. L., Davidson, R. J., et al. (2004). Placebo-induced changes in fMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain. Science, 303(5661), 1162–1167.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1093065.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wager, T. D., Matre, D., & Casey, K. L. (2006). Placebo effects in laser-evoked pain potentials. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 20(3), 219–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2006.01.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Weimer, K., Colloca, L., & Enck, P. (2015). Placebo effects in psychiatry: Mediators and moderators. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2, 246.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00092-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Wendt, L., Albring, A., & Schedlowski, M. (2014). Learned placebo responses in neuroendocrine and immune functions (pp. 159–181). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44519-8_10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wickramasekera, I. (1980). A conditioned response model of the placebo effect: Predictions from the model. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5(1), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wickramasekera, I. (1985). A conditioned response model of the placebo effect: Predictions from the model. In G. Schwartz, L. White, & B. Tursky (Eds.), Placebo: Theory, research, and mechanisms (pp. 255–287). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  164. Wilkinson, P. R., & Raftery, E. B. (1977). A comparative trial of clonidine, propranolol and placebo in the treatment of moderate hypertension. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 4(3), 289–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zubieta, J. K., & Stohler, C. S. (2009). Neurobiological mechanisms of placebo responses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 198–210.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04424.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Doctor of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine ProgramPacific College of Oriental MedicineSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Pain and Palliative Care Research Unit, Oncology DepartmentIRCCS – Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological ResearchMilanItaly
  3. 3.Departments of Anesthesiology and Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pain Translational Symptom Science, School of NursingUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Center to Advance Chronic Pain ResearchUniversity of MarylandBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations