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Biofortification of Crops with Folates: From Plant Metabolism to Table

  • Rocío Isabel Díaz de la GarzaEmail author
  • Perla Azucena Ramos-Parra
  • Heriberto Rafael Vidal-Limon
Chapter
Part of the Concepts and Strategies in Plant Sciences book series (CSPS)

Abstract

Folates are micronutrients, also known as vitamin B9. Folate malnourishment is a global problem that affects human health from conception to old age. Folate nutrition has been ameliorated by mandatory flour fortification with folic acid in several countries; however, there still are populations with folate deficiency. Plants are the primary folate source in the human diet; thus, biofortifying crops with folates can be an alternate strategy to provide the vitamin to populations at risk. Plants synthesize folates in a complex, highly compartmentalized route and, as in other organisms; folates serve as cofactors of enzymes involved in the transfer of one-carbon (1C) groups, known as 1C metabolism. Proof-of-concept folate biofortification has been achieved in crops targeting different edible plant tissues: rice, maize, and common bean seeds, potato tubers, tomato fruit, and lettuce leaves. Engineering strategies included the overexpression of enzymes involved in the biosynthetic route and also protection of the molecule from degradation in planta, as folates are very labile compounds and food processing negatively affects their accumulation. Enhancing folate contents in food crops has required and also generated knowledge about the biochemistry of folate synthesis, transport, 1C metabolism, and stability within plant food matrices. In this chapter, we attempt to cover these aspects and also discuss the potential for developing folate biofortified crop varieties.

Keywords

Folate Biosynthesis Degradation Transport Stability Biofortification 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors’ work is supported by Tecnologico de Monterrey through the Emerging Technologies for Molecular Nutrition Research Chair Fund (GIEE EICIM01) and by the Mexican National Council for Research and Technology, CONACyT, Grant CB-2014-1-243058.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rocío Isabel Díaz de la Garza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Perla Azucena Ramos-Parra
    • 1
  • Heriberto Rafael Vidal-Limon
    • 1
  1. 1.Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y CienciasMonterreyMexico

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