Vadose Zone Remediation of Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Residuals Using Foam-Based Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Particles with Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field

  • Tanapon Phenrat
  • Gregory V. Lowry


This chapter presents a novel combined remedy using foam-based NZVI (F-NZVI) for vadose zone remediation of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. Conceptually, F-NZVI serves two remedial actions. First, F-NZVI can flush the VOC or nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) from the soil. Second, in addition to flushing NAPL from the soil, the NZVI that is deposited on the soil grain, if electromagnetically induced by a low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic field (EMF) (Chap.  11), should generate heat and speed up VOC removal in the vadose zone via thermally enhanced volatilization when used with soil vapor extraction (SVE). This chapter reviews the use of various surfactants to produce foam and F-NZVI for soil flushing. Moreover, characterization and transport experiments of foam and F-NZVI in unsaturated porous media demonstrate the thermally enhanced evaporation of VOCs using F-NZVI and LF EMF (up to 40 times enhanced evaporation of trichloroethylene). The feasibility of this novel approach is compared with a thermally enhanced SVE using radio-frequency heating (RFH) without F-NZVI. The chapter points out that using F-NZVI with LF EMF could theoretically be an alternative to RFH because it does not require as high of an irradiation frequency as RFH and should lead to lower capital and operational costs versus RFH.


Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Vadose Zone Foam Thermal Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction Combined Remedies with NZVI Electromagnetic Low Frequency Electromagnetic Induction Heating 



The authors are thankful for the research funding from (1) the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) (MRG5680129); (2) the National Nanotechnology Center (Thailand), a member of the National Science and Technology Development Agency, through grant number P-11-00989; and (3) the National Research Council (R2556B070).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanapon Phenrat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gregory V. Lowry
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering ProgramNaresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  2. 2.Center of Excellence for Sustainability of Health, Environment and Industry (SHEI), Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan UniversityPhitsanulokThailand
  3. 3.Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT)DurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of Civil & Environmental EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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