Sense of Presence and Cybersickness While Cycling in Virtual Environments: Their Contribution to Subjective Experience

  • Marta MondelliniEmail author
  • Sara Arlati
  • Luca Greci
  • Giancarlo Ferrigno
  • Marco Sacco
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10850)


Head mounted displays (HMDs) are visualization devices that provide high levels of immersion in virtual environments (VEs), which have been recently used to enhance the experience of subjects performing a physical exercise. However, the use of these devices in rehabilitation is discussed as it could cause cybersickness and other physical drawbacks. In this context, we conducted a preliminary study investigating the experiences of navigating in the same VEs using a cycle-ergometer and either a projected screen (PS) or a HMD, considering whether the “the Sense of Presence” influenced the device’s preference. Thirty-three healthy young adults were enrolled and randomized in four groups to counterbalance the two conditions and to investigate the effects of 5-days washout. Most of the subjects (n = 26) preferred the HMD with respect to PS; sense of presence was higher using HMD than using projector (t = −11.47, p < 0.001), but the difference between conditions was higher for those who preferred the HMD (t = −14.64, p < 0.001), compared to those who chose projector (t = −2.70, p < 0.05). The correlation of presence with cybersickness revealed that, despite higher levels of sickness, sense of presence probably counts more in choosing the HMD as the preferred device.


Presence Virtual reality Immersive environments 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Mondellini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sara Arlati
    • 1
    • 2
  • Luca Greci
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Ferrigno
    • 2
  • Marco Sacco
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation, National Research CouncilMilanItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e BioingegneriaPolitecnico di MilanoMilanItaly

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