Advertisement

State of Biodiversity and Forest Genetic Resources in Greece in Relation to Conservation

  • Filippos A. Aravanopoulos
  • Paraskevi G. Alizoti
  • Anna-Maria Farsakoglou
  • Ermioni Malliarou
  • Evangelia V. Avramidou
  • Nikolaos Tourvas
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Global Change Research book series (AGLO, volume 65)

Abstract

The different levels of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity) present in Greece are introduced, quantified, where possible, and analysed in comparison to the rest of the European continent and internationally. Greece ranks third and fourth regarding key biodiversity areas in Europe and Mediterranean Basin respectively and first in the number of species per unit area. The genetic diversity and differentiation in natural ecosystems and especially in forest tree species is very high. For a number of species (e.g. in chestnut) a significant portion of their total European genetic diversity is present in Greece and some metrics of genetic diversity parameters present high values when compared to European and world-wide average values. Nevertheless, the conservation of biodiversity has insofar focused at the ecosystem level. About one-third of the country land mass is under some form of biodiversity protection (27% included in the Natura 2000 network), however the forest genetic resources protection lags behind as officially only 5 species and 15 populations are part of the European Forest Genetic Resources Network. Overall, the richness for biodiversity in Greece is almost irreversibly proportional to the stage of its protection, especially at the genetic resource level.

Keywords

Biodiversity Gene diversity Species diversity Conservation genetics Forest trees Greece 

References

  1. Aravanopoulos, F. (2010). The importance of the biodiversity of Hellenic forest and land-based ecosystems for Europe and the Mediterranean. In M. Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou (Ed.), Proc. Conf. Environmental Council (pp. 1–11). Thessaloniki: Aristotle University Press, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.Google Scholar
  2. Aravanopoulos, F., Bucci, G., & Akkak, A. (2005). Molecular population genetics and dynamics of chestnut (Castanea sativa) in Europe: Inferences for gene conservation and tree improvement. Acta Horticulturae, 693, 403–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity. (2010). ASEAN biodiversity outlook Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines (pp. 120–121). Los Banos: ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity.Google Scholar
  4. Ashton, P. S., Kamariah, A., & Said, I. M. (2003). Field guide to the forest trees of Brunei Darussalam and the Northwest Borneo hotspot. University of Brunei Darussalam in association with Brunei Forestry Department, Brunei Shell Petroleum and Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. Beaman, J. H. (2005). Mount Kinabalu: Hotspot of plant diversity in Borneo. Biologiske Skrifter, 55, 103–127.Google Scholar
  6. Brummitt, N., & Lughadha, E. N. (2003). Biodiversity: Where’s hot and where’s not. Conservation Biology, 17, 1442–1448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. (2010). The second report on the state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food & Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  8. De Bruyn, M., et al. (2014). Borneo and Indochina are major evolutionary hotspots for Southeast Asian biodiversity. Systematic Biology, 63, 879–901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Derneği, D. (2010). Ecosystem profile: Mediterranean basin biodiversity hotspot Final Report for submission to the CEPF Donor Council July 27:2010.Google Scholar
  10. Fady-Welterlen, B. (2005). Is there really more biodiversity in Mediterranean forest ecosystems? Taxon, 54, 905–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farsakoglou, A. M., & Aravanopoulos, F. A. (2013). Greece-Borneo: A comparative biodiversity analysis. In Proceeding of the 13th Pan-Hellenic Conference, Hellenic Botanical Society, Thessaloniki. Google Scholar
  12. Ganopoulos, I., Aravanopoulos, F. A., Argiriou, A., Kalivas, A., & Tsaftaris, A. (2011). Is the genetic diversity of small scattered forest tree populations at the southern limits of their range more prone to stochastic events? A wild cherry case study by microsatellite-based markers. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 7, 1299–1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grafe, T. U., & Keller, A. (2009). A Bornean amphibian hotspot: The lowland mixed dipterocarp rainforest at Ulu Temburong National Park, Brunei Darussalam. Salamandra, 45, 25–38.Google Scholar
  14. Hamrick, J. L., & Godt, M. (1996). Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 351, 1291–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamrick, J. L., Godt, M. J. W., & Sherman-Broyles, S. L. (1992). Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forests, 6, 95–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hobohm, C. (2003). Characterization and ranking of biodiversity hotspots: Centres of species richness and endemism. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12, 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hrdina, A., & Romportl, D. (2017). Evaluating global biodiversity hotspots – Very rich and even more endangered. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 10, 108–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kueh, B. H., Maryati Mohamed, D., & Das, I. (2002). Application of biogeographical data of frogs to prioritize conservation areas in Borneo.Google Scholar
  19. Magri, D., et al. (2006). A new scenario for the quaternary history of European beech populations: Palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences. New Phytologist, 171, 199–221.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Malliarou, E., & Aravanopoulos, F. (2012). A comparative analysis of forest tree species genetic diversity between Greece and the rest of the European continent. In: Proceeding of the 14th Pan-Hellenic Conference, Hellenic Scientific Society for Plant Genetics and Breeding, Thessaloniki.Google Scholar
  21. Meijaard, E., & Nijman, V. (2003). Primate hotspots on Borneo: Predictive value for general biodiversity and the effects of taxonomy. Conservation Biology, 17, 725–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mittermeier, R. A., Myers, N., Thomsen, J. B., Da Fonseca, G. A., & Olivieri, S. (1998). Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: Approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conservation Biology, 12, 516–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Da Fonseca, G. A., & Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Orr, A. G., & Hauser, C. L. (1996). Kuala Belalong, Brunei: A hotspot of old world butterfly diversity. Tropical Lepidoptrea, 7, 1–12.Google Scholar
  25. Slik, J., et al. (2009). Environmental correlates for tropical tree diversity and distribution patterns in Borneo. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 523–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Struebig, M. J., Bożek, M., Hildebrand, J., Rossiter, S. J., & Lane, D. J. (2012). Bat diversity in the lowland forests of the heart of Borneo. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21, 3711–3727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filippos A. Aravanopoulos
    • 1
  • Paraskevi G. Alizoti
    • 1
  • Anna-Maria Farsakoglou
    • 2
  • Ermioni Malliarou
    • 2
  • Evangelia V. Avramidou
    • 3
  • Nikolaos Tourvas
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Forestry and Natural EnvironmentAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural EnvironmentAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Silviculture, Forest Genetics and BiotechnologyInstitute of Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems and Forest Products TechnologyAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations