• Michael Wainwright


The works of William Shakespeare implicitly endorse the principle that underpins Ramism: nature endows humans with rational minds that require education in logic to appreciate that endowment. The convergences, differences, and divergences between Shakespeare’s works and Ramism serve not only to promote the radical essence of Shakespearean humanism, but also to outline the personal, national, and international contours of the Elizabethan sociopolitical terrain. Detailed analyses of Shakespeare’s interrogation of social dilemmas across his canon confirm both that revolutionary essence and that contextualization. In the final instance, therefore, Edward de Vere, Seventeenth Earl of Oxford, was the man behind the Shakespeare nom de plume.

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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Wainwright
    • 1
  1. 1.Royal HollowayUniversity of LondonEghamUK

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