Advertisement

The Role of Endoscopy

  • Bruno Frederico Medrado
  • Bruno da Costa Martins
Chapter

Abstract

Endoscopy has become an important tool in the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and palliation of patients with gastric cancer, including of the diffuse type. During upper endoscopy, suspicious-appearing gastric lesions can be identified and carefully analyzed to guide proper management. This chapter will focus on the endoscopic approach to diffuse gastric cancer: macroscopic classification, tissue acquisition, staging, and the window for endoscopic management.

Keywords

Gastric Cancer Diffuse Endoscopy Early disease 

References

  1. 1.
    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®). Gastric cancer, Version 3.2016, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2016;14:1286–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carneiro F, Huntsman DG, Smyrk TC, Owen DA, Seruca R, Pharoah P, Caldas C, Sobrinho-Simões M. Model of the early development of diffuse gastric cancer in E-cadherin mutation carriers and its implications for patient screening. J Pathol. 2004;203(2):681.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oliveira C, Seruca R, Carneiro F. Genetics, pathology, and clinics of familial gastric cancer. Int J Surg Pathol. 2006;14(1):21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Graham DY, Schwartz JT, Cain GD, Gyorkey F. Prospective evaluation of biopsy number in the diagnosis of esophageal and gastric carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 1982;82(2):228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karita M, Tada M. Endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of submucosal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract using combined strip biopsy and bite biopsy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1994;40(6):749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lutz MP, Zalcberg JR, Ducreux M, Ajani JA, Allum W, Aust D, Bang YJ, Cascinu S, Hölscher A, Jankowski J, et al. Highlights of the EORTC St. Gallen international expert consensus on the primary therapy of gastric, gastroesophageal and oesophageal cancer – differential treatment strategies for subtypes of early gastroesophageal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:2941–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tong JH, Sun Z, Wang ZN, Zhao YH, Huang BJ, Li K, Xu Y, Xu HM. Early gastric cancer with signet-ring cell histologic type: risk factors of lymph node metastasis and indications of endoscopic surgery. Surgery. 2011;149:356–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ha TK, An JY, Youn HK, Noh JH, Sohn TS, Kim S. Indication for endoscopic mucosal resection in early signet ring cell gastric cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:508–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gotoda T, Yanagisawa A, Sasako M, Ono H, Nakanishi Y, Shimoda T, Kato Y. Incidence of lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: estimation with a large number of cases at two large centers. Gastric Cancer. 2000;3:219–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mocellin S, Pasquali S. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the preoperative locoregional staging of primary gastric cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD009944.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willis S, Truong S, Gribnitz S, Fass J, Schumpelick V. Endoscopic ultrasonography in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer: accuracy and impact on surgical therapy. Surg Endosc. 2000;14(10):951.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meining A, Dittler HJ, Wolf A, Lorenz R, Schusdziarra V, Siewert JR, Classen M, Höfler H, Rösch T. You get what you expect? A critical appraisal of imaging methodology in endosonographic cancer staging. Gut. 2002;50(5):599.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kwee RM, Kwee TC. Imaging in local staging of gastric cancer: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(15):2107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Charlton A, Blair V, Shaw D, Parry S, Guilford P, Martin IG. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: predominance of multiple foci of signet ring cell carcinoma in distal stomach and transitional zone. Gut. 2004;53(6):814.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Matsuo T, Ito M, Takata S, Tanaka S, Yoshihara M, Chayama K. Low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer among Japanese. Helicobacter. 2011;16:415–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sugihara H, Hattori T, Fukuda M, Fujita S. Cell proliferation and differentiation in intramucosal and advanced signet ring cell carcinomas of the human stomach. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1987;411:117–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tanaka K, Toyoda H, Kadowaki S, et al. Surface pattern classification by enhanced-magnification endoscopy for identifying early gastric cancers. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:430–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2007.10.042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kono Y, Takenaka R, Kawahara Y, et al. Chromoendoscopy of gastric adenoma using an acetic acid indigocarmine mixture. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:5092–7.  https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i17.5092.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mouzyka S, Fedoseeva A. Chromoendoscopy with hematoxylin in the classification of gastric lesions. Gastric Cancer. 2008;11:15–21 ; discussion 21–2.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10120-007-0445-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhao Z, Yin Z, Wang S, et al. Meta-analysis: the diagnostic efficacy of chromoendoscopy for early gastric cancer and premalignant gastric lesions. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;31:1539–45.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgh.13313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shaw D, Blair V, Framp A, et al. Chromoendoscopic surveillance in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: an alternative to prophylactic gastrectomy? Gut. 2005;54:461–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lim YC, di Pietro M, O'Donovan M, et al. Prospective cohort study assessing outcomes of patients from families fulfilling criteria for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer undergoing endoscopic surveillance. Gastrointest Endosc. 2014;80:78–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hüneburg R, et al. Chromoendoscopy in combination with random biopsies does not improve detection of gastric cancer foci in CDH1 mutation positive patients. Endosc Int Open. 2016;4(12):E1305–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van der Post RS, et al. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers. J Med Genet. 2015;(52.6):361–74.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fitzgerald RC, Hardwick R, Huntsman D, Carneiro F, Guilford P, Blair V, Chung DC, Norton J, Ragunath K, Van Krieken JH, Dwerryhouse S, Caldas C. International gastric cancer linkage C. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated consensus guidelines for clinical management and directions for future research. J Med Genet. 2010;47:436–44.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2009.074237.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barber M, Murrell A, Ito Y, Maia AT, Hyland S, Oliveira C, Save V, Carneiro F, Paterson AL, Grehan N, Dwerryhouse S, Lao-Sirieix P, Caldas C, Fitzgerald RC. Mechanisms and sequelae of E-cadherin silencing in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. J Pathol. 2008;216:295–306.  https://doi.org/10.1002/path.2426.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Frederico Medrado
    • 1
  • Bruno da Costa Martins
    • 2
  1. 1.Endoscopy section of Hospital da Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal da BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo/Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations