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Predictive Biomarkers and Targeted Therapies in Adult Brain Cancers

  • Jose M. Bonnin
Chapter

Abstract

Diffuse glial neoplasms in adults remain incurable, with high morbidity and mortality, despite significant advances in our understanding of their molecular characteristics and the underlying alterations in specific signaling pathways. With rare exceptions, and unlike the successes in treatment of other solid tumors, successful application of targeted therapies for glial neoplasms has remained elusive. Mutations in the IDH1/2 genes are factors in the neoplastic transformation of a large proportion of intermediate and high-grade gliomas, and a variety of treatment approaches including the development of vaccines and molecular inhibitors are currently being evaluated. Epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation also play an important role in the response to specific therapies. The accurate screening of predictive biomarkers in the diagnosis of gliomas and other tumors of the nervous system is now needed to allow selection of the most appropriate therapeutic approaches based on the molecular characteristics of the tumor.

Keywords

IDH-mutant High-grade glioma Low-grade glioma Glioblastoma MGMT promoter methylation 1p19q codeletion Oligodendroglioma Ependymomas C11orf95-RELA fusion BRAF mutations Temozolamide KIAA1549–BRAF fusion Angiogenesis Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma BRAF-V600E 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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