Innovation, Regions and Employment Resilience in Sweden

  • Charlie KarlssonEmail author
  • Philippe Rouchy
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


Lately, the concept of regional resilience has drawn some attention in academic and policies circles. In a macroeconomic perspective, resilience is essentially conceived through recovery from recession (industrial redeployment, path dependency) or external shock (economic crisis). In this chapter, we will adopt a mix approach of resilience associating economic geography with labour capital. We define the notion of regional resilience through labour characteristics (regional net employment, job accessibility defined as commuting surplus/deficit, employment resilience and labour dynamics) of the six most innovative Swedish regions (NUTS 3 level). We observed those regions under a 10 years period between 2004 and 2014. Our descriptive approach shows the relevance to consider regional resilience from the institutions of the job market in regard of business cycle, i.e. in line with regions’ abilities to adapt to continuous changes over time.


Employment Regional development and change Resilience Innovative regions 


  1. Almeida, P., & Kogut, B. (1999). Localization of knowledge and the mobility of engineers in regional networks. Management Science, 45(7), 905–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amable, B. (2000). Institutional complementarity and diversity of social systems of innovation and production. Review of International Political Economy, 7(4), 645–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, M., & Karlsson, C. (2004). Regional innovation systems in small and medium sized regions. A critical review and assessment (Working paper series in economics and institutions of innovation, no. 10). Stockholm: CESIS Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm.Google Scholar
  4. Andersson, M., & Koster, S. (2011). Sources of persistence in regional start-ups. Evidence from Sweden. Journal of Economic Geography, 11(1), 179–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asheim, B., & Isaksen, A. (2002). Regional innovation systems: The integration of local sticky and global ubiquitous knowledge. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 27(1), 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balland, B. A. (2012a). Proximity and the evolution of collaboration networks: Evidence from research and development projects within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) industry. Regional Studies, 46(6), 741–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balland, B. A. (2012b). Promoting knowledge transfer and the economic resilience of regions (Working paper). Utrecht: Utrecht University.Google Scholar
  8. Behrenz, L., Delander, L., & Månsson, J. (2013). The public employment service: A survey of cost-benefit analysis and productive efficiency analysis studies. Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet.Google Scholar
  9. Boschma, R. (2005). Proximity and innovation: A critical assessment. Regional Studies, 39(1), 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boschma, R. (2015). Towards an evolutionary perspective on regional resilience. Regional Studies, 49(5), 733–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boschma, R., & Frenken, K. (2010). The spatial evolution of innovation networks. A proximity perspective. In R. Boschma & R. Martin (Eds.), The handbook of evolution economic geography (pp. 120–135). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boschma, R., & Lambooy, J. (1999). The prospects of an adjustment policy based on collective learning in old industrial regions. Geojournal, 49, 391–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boschma, R., Minondo, A., & Navarro, M. (2013). The emergence of new industries at the regional level in Spain. A proximity approach based on product-relatedness. Economic Geography, 89(1), 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bristow, G. (2010). Resilient regions: Re-‘place’ing regional competitiveness. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 153–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Caballero, R., & Hammour, M. (1994). The cleansing effect of recession. American Economic Review, 84, 1350–1368.Google Scholar
  16. Capello, R., Fratesi, U., & Resmini, L. (2011). Regional attractiveness and its determinants. In Globalization and regional growth in Europe (pp. 191–213). Berlin: Springer Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cellini, R., & Torrisi, G. (2014). Regional resilience in Italy: A very long run analysis. Regional Studies, 48, 1779–1796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christopherson, S., Michie, J., & Tyler, P. (2010). Regional resilience: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 3–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark, J., Huang, H. I., & Walsh, J. P. (2010). A typology of “innovation district”: What it means for regional resilience. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooke, P., Bristow, G., & Porter, J, (2011, September). Regional resilience literature review. Paper presented BordeauxGoogle Scholar
  21. Davies, S. (2011). Regional resilience in the 2008–2010 downturn: Comparative evidence from European countries. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 4, 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Demmke, C., & Moilanen, T. (2012). The future of public employment in central public administration restructuring in times of government transformation and the impact on status development. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration.Google Scholar
  23. Diodato, D., & Weterings, A. B. (2014). The resilience of regional labour markets to economic shocks: Exploring the role of interactions among firms and workers. Journal of Economic Geography, 15(4), 723–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doussard, M., & Schrock, G. (2015). Uneven decline: Linking historical patterns and processes of industrial restructuring to future growth trajectories. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(2), 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebbinghaus, B. (2009). Can path dependence explain institutional change? Two approaches applied to welfare state reform. In L. Magnusson & J. Ottosson (Eds.), The evolution of path dependence (pp. 191–218). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  26. Essletzbichler, J. (2015). Relatedness, industrial branching and technological cohesion in US metropolitan areas. Regional Studies, 49(5), 752–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. European Commission. (2014). Taking stock of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM (2014), 130 final, Brussels.Google Scholar
  28. Fingleton, B., Garretsen, H., & Martin, R. (2012). Recessionary shocks and regional employment: Evidence on the resilience of UK regions. Journal of Regional Science, 52, 109–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fingleton, B., Garretsen, H., & Martin, R. (2015). Shocking aspects of monetary union: The vulnerability of regions in Euroland. Journal of Economic Geography, 15(5), 907–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Foster, K. A. (2007). A case study approach to understanding regional resilience (Working paper 2007–2008). Berkeley, CA: Institute of Urban and Regional Development.Google Scholar
  31. Graddy-Reed, A., & Feldman, M. P. (2015). Stepping up: An empirical analysis of the role of social innovation in response to an economic recession. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8, 293–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grillitsch, M. (2014). Institutional change and economic evolution in regions (Working paper). Lund: Lund University.Google Scholar
  33. Hall, P. A., & Soskice, D. (Eds.). (2001). Varieties of capitalism. The institutional foundations of comparative advantage. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hassink, R. (2010). Regional resilience: A promising concept to explain differences in regional economic adaptability? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Henning, M., Stam, E., & Wenting, R. (2013). Path dependence research in regional economic development: Cacophony or knowledge accumulation? Regional Studies, 47(8), 1348–1362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hill, E., Wial, H., & Wolman, H. (2008). Exploring regional economic resilience (Working paper 2008–04). Berkeley, CA: Institute of Urban and Regional Development.Google Scholar
  37. Hill, E., St Clair, T., Wial, H., Wolman, H., Atkins, P., Blumenthal, P., et al. (2012). Chapter 6: Economic shocks and regional economic resilience. In N. Weir, N. Pindus, H. Wial, & H. Wolman (Eds.), Building resilient regions: Urban and regional policy and its effects (Vol. 4, pp. 193–274). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hollingsworth, J. R. (2000). Doing institutional analysis: Implications for the study of innovations. Review of International Political Economy, 7(4), 595–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Iammarino, S. (2004, June 4–5). On the definition of regional system of innovation (RSI): An application to the Italian case. Conference on “Regionalisation of Innovation Policy”, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  40. Johansson, B. (1992). Ekonomisk Dynamik i Europa. Malmö: Liber-Hermods.Google Scholar
  41. Johansson, B. (1993). Economic networks and self-organization. In E. Bergman, G. Maier, & F. Tödtling (Eds.), Regions reconsidered. Suffolk: Ipswich Book Co Ltd.Google Scholar
  42. Johansson, B. (1998). Infrastructure, market potential and endogenous growth. Jönköping: JIBS.Google Scholar
  43. Magnusson, L., & Ottosson, J. (Eds.). (2009). The evolution of path dependence. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  44. Markusen, A. (1985). Profit cycles, oligopoly, and regional development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  45. Martin, R. (2010). Roepke lecture in economic geography. Rethinking regional path dependence. Beyond lock-in to evolution. Economic Geography, 86, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Martin, R. (2012). Regional economic resilience, hysteresis and recessionary shocks. Journal of Economy Geography, 12, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martin, R. L., & Sunley, P. J. (2015). On the notion of regional economic resilience: Conceptualisation and explanation. Journal of Economic Geography, 15, 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Martin, R., Sunley, P., & Tyler, P. (2015). Local growth evolutions: Recession, resilience and recovery. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(2), 141–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McCann, P., & Ortega-Argilés, R. (2013). Modern regional innovation policy. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 6(2), 187–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meeus, M., Oerlemans, L., & van Dijck, J. (1999). Regional systems of innovation from within – an empirical specification of the relation between technological dynamics and interaction between multiple actors in a Dutch region, ECIS working paper no. 99.1.Google Scholar
  51. Neffke, F., Henning, M., Boschma, R. A., Lundquist, K. J., & Olander, L. O. (2011a). The dynamics of agglomeration externalities: A survival analysis. Journal of Economic Geography, 12(2), 485–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Neffke, F., Henning, M., & Boschma, R. (2011b). How do regions diversify over time? Industry relatedness and the development of new growth paths in regions. Economic Geography, 87, 237–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. OECD. (2012a). What makes labor markets resilient during recessions? In OECD employment outlook 2012. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. OECD. (2012b). What makes labor markets resilient during recessions? In Annexes 2.A1 and 2.A2 of chapter 2 of the 2012 OECD employment outlook. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. OECD. (2012c). Going for growth: Economic policy reforms. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. Ormerod, P. (2008). Resilience after local economic shocks. Applied Economic Letters, 17, 503–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ormerod, P. (2010). Risk, recessions and the resilience of the capitalist economies. Risk Management, 12(1), 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pike, A., Dawley, S., & Tomaney, J. (2010). Resilience, adaptation and adaptability. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reggiani, A., De Graaf, T., & Nijkamp, P. (2002). Resilience: An evolutionary approach to spatial economic systems. Networks and Spatial Economics, 2, 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saviotti, P. P. (1996). Technological evolution, variety and the economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  61. Simmie, J., & Martin, R. (2010). The economic resilience of regions: Towards an evolutionary approach. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 27–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Strambach, S. (2010). Path dependency and path plasticity. The co-evolution of institutions and innovation – the German customized business software industry. In R. A. Boschma & R. Martin (Eds.), Handbook of evolutionary economic geography (pp. 406–431). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  63. Strambach, S., & Klement, B. (2012). Cumulative and combinatorial micro-dynamics of knowledge. The role of space and place in knowledge integration. European Planning Studies, 20(11), 1843–1866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Swanstrom, T., Chapple, K., & Immergluck, D. (2009). Regional resilience in the face of foreclosures: Evidence from six metropolitan areas. In A report prepared for the MacArthur foundation’s building resilient regions project (Working paper 2009–05). UC Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development.Google Scholar
  65. Treado, C. D. (2010). Pittsburgh’s evolving steel legacy and the steel technology cluster. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wiig, H. (1996). An empirical study of the innovation system in Finnmark, STEP working paper R-09, Oslo.Google Scholar
  67. Wolfe, D. A. (2010). The strategic management of core cities: Path dependence and economic adjustment in resilient regions. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zeitschrift fur Wirtschaftsgeographie. (2013). Special issue on reconceptualizing change: Path dependency, path plasticity and knowledge combination 57(1–2), 1–96.Google Scholar
  69. Zolli, A., & Healy, A. M. (2012). Resilience. Why things bounce back. London: Headline Publishing Group.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jönköping International Business SchoolJönköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EconomicsBlekinge Institute of TechnologyKarlskronaSweden

Personalised recommendations