The chapter presents a forensic perspective about the acute care and emergency surgery medical activity. The first part of the present chapter focuses on the widely discussed issue of medical liability in the peculiar setting of emergency and trauma surgery. Firstly, the authors present some significant international data about claims and suits against physicians, in order to provide an overview of the current worldwide situation.
Then, the extreme importance of proper medical documentation in the emergency setting (medical chart, informed consent document, emergency room assistance sheet, nursing documentation) is discussed.
The problem of professional standard is also addressed. Concerning guidelines, even though their use is not compulsory for the clinician, they are of special relevance during trials concerning medical liability, as they are often used by experts that take part to lawsuits and they are also expressly addressed by the members of the Court.
Finally, the controversial issue of the informed consent in emergency care is faced.
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