Advertisement

Adoption in Tonga

  • Mele Tupou
  • Sue Farran
Chapter
Part of the The World of Small States book series (WSS, volume 5)

Abstract

Tonga, long regarded as unique among Pacific island states on account of its constitutional monarchy and social structure, is also distinguishable in its approach to adoption. While informal or customary adoption occurs, the formal system treats those born within wedlock and those who are not, very differently. This has far reaching consequences for children and parents.

References

  1. ABC (2016) Teen marriage in Tonga often caused by parental pressure. Pacific Beat, 26 August 2016 (Loloa Koloamatangi). http://www.abc.net.au/news/programs/pacific-beat/2016-08-25/teen-marriage-in-tonga-often-caused-by-parental/7787504. Accessed 8 May 2018
  2. Besnier N (2008) Crossing genders, mixing languages: the linguistic construction of transgenderism in Tonga. In: Holmes J, Meyerghoff M (eds) The handbook of language and gender. John Wiley & Sons, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  3. Churchward M (1959) Tongan dictionary. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Convention on the Rights of the Child, opened for signature 20 November 1989, 1577 UNTS 3 (entered into force 2 September 1990)Google Scholar
  5. Emberson-Bain A (December 1998) ‘Women in Tonga’ (Country Briefing Paper, Asian Development Bank. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/institutional-document/32602/women-tonga.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2018
  6. Fatafehi Lilika Mafi (2002) Teen-age pregnancy increases in Tonga. Tongan Chronical, Pacific Islands Report (online), 16 October 2002. http://www.pireport.org/articles/2002/10/16/teen-age-pregnancy-increases-tonga. Accessed 8 May 2018
  7. Government of Tonga (2016) Ministry of Justice Annual ReportGoogle Scholar
  8. Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children, GA Res 64/142, UN GAOR, 64th sess, Agenda Item 64, UN Doc A/RES/64/142 (24 February 2010)Google Scholar
  9. Pacific Islands Report ‘Teen pregnancy increases in Tonga’, 10/16/2002 http://www.pireport.org/articles/2002/10/16/teen-age-pregnancy-increases-tonga. Accessed 8 May 2018
  10. PRISM (2016) Population Projections by PICT. https://prism.spc.int/regional-data-and-tools/population-statistics. Accessed 8 May 2018
  11. Pyke J, Francis S, Ben-Moshe D (August 2012) The Tongan Diaspora in Australia: Current and Potential Links with the Homeland. Research Report, Australian Research CouncilGoogle Scholar
  12. Radio New Zealand (2002) Call for lower teenager pregnancy rates in Tonga. Radio New Zealand (online), 17 October 2002. https://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/141321/call-for-lower-teenager-pregnancy-rates-in-tonga Accessed 8 May 2018
  13. Tonga Broadcasting Commission Tonga (2017) Tonga’s pregnancy rate 30 births per 1000 girls. 25 July 2017. http://www.tonga-broadcasting.net/?p=8462. Accessed 8 May 2018
  14. Tonga Statistics Department (2017) Census of Population and Housing 2016: Volume 1. http://tonga.prism.spc.int/PublicDocuments/Census%20of%20Population%20and%20Housing_/04_2016/02_2016_CensusReportVol_1rev.pdf Accessed 8 May 2018
  15. Trapski P (1991) Trapski’s family law, vol 5. Brooker & Friend, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  16. UNICEF (2006) Tonga: a situation analysis of children, women and youth. https://www.unicef.org/pacificislands/TONGAN_SITAN.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2018
  17. UNICEF Pacific (5 September 2017) ‘Technical assistance for revision of Tonga’s adoption laws and policies (Consultancy) Terms of Reference: Individual International Consultant. https://www.impactpool.org/jobs/299485. Accessed 8 May 2018
  18. United Nations Population Fund (2013) ‘I am not a Lost Cause: Young Women’s Empowerment and Teenage Pregnancy in the Pacific. https://pacificwomen.org/resources/i-am-not-a-lost-cause-young-womens-empowerment-and-teenage-pregnancy-in-the-pacific/. Accessed 8 May 2018
  19. Urbanowicz C (1973) Tongan adoption before the constitution of 1875. Ethnohistory 20(2):109–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. West T (1865) Ten years in central polynesia. Nisbet & Company, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Worldometers (2018) Countries in the world by population 2018. www.worldometers.info/world-populations/tonga-population/. Accessed 31 Jan 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mele Tupou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sue Farran
    • 3
  1. 1.Ministry of JusticeNuku’alofaTonga
  2. 2.University of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  3. 3.Northumbria Law SchoolUniversity of Northumbria at NewcastleNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations