• Stephen H. Tsang
  • Tarun SharmaEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1085)


The electroretinogram (ERG) is a mass electrical response from the retina, evoked by a brief flash of light. ERG recording is done using an active electrode (a contact lens in contact with bulbar conjunctiva) and a reference electrode (at the outer canthus); the active electrode can also be a gold foil electrode or HK-loop electrode. There are three types of ERG: the full-field (Ganzfeld) ERG, the multifocal ERG, and the pattern ERG.


Electroretinogram ERG 

Suggested Reading

  1. Arden GB, Constable PA. The electro-oculogram. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2006;25:207–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Holder GE. Pattern electroretinography (PERG) and an integrated approach to visual pathway diagnosis. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2001;20:531–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Marmor MF, Fulton AB, Holder GE, Miyake Y, Brigell M, Bach M, International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. ISCEV Standard for full-field clinical electroretinography (2008 update). Doc Ophthalmol. 2009;118:69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Vincent A, Robson AG, Holder GE. Pathognomic (diagnostic) ERGs. A review and update. Retina. 2013;33:5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jonas Children’s Vision Care, Bernard & Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative-Departments of Ophthalmology, Biomedical Engineering, Pathology & Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia UniversityEdward S. Harkness Eye Institute, NewYork-Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA

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