Rubella Retinopathy

  • Stephen H. Tsang
  • Tarun SharmaEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1085)


Definition: A phenocopy is an individual showing features (phenotype) characteristic of a genotype but produced environmentally rather than genetically (not inherited); these features are not due to mutations, as the underlying DNA sequence of the phenocopy is not altered.


Phenocopies Rubella retinopathy 

Suggested Reading

  1. Arnold JJ, McIntosh ED, Martin FJ, Menser MA. A fifty-year follow-up of ocular defects in congenital rubella: late ocular manifestations. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1994;22:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Givens KT, Lee DA, Jones T, Ilstrup DM. Congenital rubella syndrome: ophthalmic manifestations and associated systemic disorders. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993;77:358–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jonas Children’s Vision Care, Bernard & Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Columbia Stem Cell Initiative-Departments of Ophthalmology, Biomedical Engineering, Pathology & Cell Biology, Institute of Human Nutrition, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia UniversityEdward S. Harkness Eye Institute, NewYork-Presbyterian HospitalNew YorkUSA

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