The Costs of War

  • James Kellenberger
Part of the Palgrave Frontiers in Philosophy of Religion book series (PFPR)


The costs argument is a supplemental moral argument against war: the terrible costs of war in recent centuries and in the foreseeable future, it is argued, establishes the moral wrongness and evil of modern wars. These costs include the great suffering of civilians in combat operations and the post-war effects on both civilians and soldiers, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), This argument is not for unqualified pacifism (because it argues against only modern wars, not all wars), but if successful it shows the correctness of a pacifist approach to modern warfare.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Kellenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyCalifornia State UniversityNorthridgeUSA

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