Governing for Viability: The Case of Velondriake Locally Managed Marine Area in Madagascar

  • Lovasoa Cédrique Augustave
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 21)


Until recently, Andavadoaka was a small fishing village in the southwest of Madagascar with an economy based on selling dried fish, sea cucumbers, and octopus to collectors. The fisheries went through a major change with the arrival of an export company focusing on fresh octopus trade, while facing many issues, including overexploitation and degradation of the coral reef ecosystem. The concern about sustainability and viability of the fishing communities led to the establishment of a temporary no-take zone, as part of the locally managed marine area (LMMA), facilitated by a partnership between governments, research institutions, environmental organizations, and villagers. The conservation initiative received support from all stakeholders and the model had been transferred to other areas. While the no-take zone is considered successful in reducing the pressure on the octopus fishery, the LMMA faces many challenges, including lack of funding and human resources, resource use conflicts, and lack of compliance, especially by fishers from outside the areas. These problems are complex and interconnected, and cannot be solved without a proper understanding of the whole fisheries system, throughout the entire fish chain. In this chapter, the governability assessment framework is applied to examine the natural and social characteristics of the fishing communities and the institutional and policy requirements for the successful implementation of the LMMA. The chapter offers insights into the LMMA and discusses the role that a transdisciplinary perspective can play in promoting long-term sustainability and viability of fishing communities in the area.


Octopus fishery LMMA Conservation Small-scale fisheries Viability Governability Madagascar 


  1. Barnes-Mauthe M, Olesen KLL, Zafindrasilivonona B (2013) The total economic value of small-scale fisheries with a characterization of post-landing trends: an application in Madagascar with global relevance. Fish Res 147:175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benbow S, Humber F, Oliver TA et al (2014) Lessons learnt from experimental temporary octopus fishing closures in south-west Madagascar: benefits of concurrent closures. Afr J Mar Sci 36(1):31–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blue Ventures (2004) Marine protected area the context Andavadoaka: an opportunity for community based marine resource management. GlobalGiving, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  4. Caveriviere A (2006) Principaux traits de vie du poulpe Octopus cyanea en zone tropicale. MADADOC, Antananarivo, pp 39–47Google Scholar
  5. Charles AT (ed) (2000) Sustainable fishery systems. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cripps G, Harris A (2009) Community creation and management of the Velondriake marine protected area. Blue Ventures Conserv 6(3):692–702. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. EC (European Commission) (2015) Sustainable fisheries for sustainable development, fisheries. Accessed 28 Sept 2017
  8. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2015) Voluntary guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. Gabrié C, Vasseur P, Randriamiarana H et al (2000) The coral reefs of Madagascar. In: McClanahan T, Sheppard CRC, Obura DO (eds) Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Gardner JC, Rocliffe S, Gough C et al (2017) Value chain challenges in two community-managed fisheries in western Madagascar: insights for the small-scale fisheries guidelines. In: Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R, Barragán-Paladines MJ et al (eds) The small-scale fisheries guidelines: global implementation. Springer, Cham, pp 335–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. GFSI (2015) Global food security index 2015. The economist intelligence unit, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Gillibrand CJ, Harris AR, Mara E (2007) Inventory and spatial assemblage study of reef fish in the Area of Andavadoaka, South- West Madagascar (Western Indian Ocean). West Indian Ocean J Mar Sci 6(2):183–197Google Scholar
  13. Govan H, Aalbersberg W, Tawake A et al (2008) Locally-managed marine areas: a guide to supporting community-based adaptive management. Locally-Managed Marine Area (LMMA) Network, SuvaGoogle Scholar
  14. Jentoft S (2007) Limits of governability: institutional implications for fisheries and coastal governance. Mar Policy 31(4):360–370. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (2009) Fisheries and coastal governance as a wicked problem. Mar Policy Pergamon 33(4):553–560. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (eds) (2015) Interactive governance for small-scale fisheries: global reflections. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  17. Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R, Bundy A et al (2010) Pyramids and roses: alternative images for the governance of fisheries systems. Mar Policy 34:1315–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jentoft S, Pascual-Fernandez JJ, la Cruz Modino D et al (2015) What stakeholders think about marine protected areas: case studies from Spain. Hum Ecol 40:185–197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kooiman J (2008) Exploring the concept of governability. J Comp Policy Anal: Res Pract 10(2):171–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kooiman J, Bavinck M, Jentoft S et al (eds) (2005) Fish for life: interactive governance for fisheries. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lang DJ, Wiek A, Bergmann M et al (2012) Transdisciplinary research in sustainability science: practice, principles, and challenges. Sustain Sci 7(Suppl. 1):25–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Le Manach F, Gough C, Harris A et al (2012) Unreported fishing, hungry people and political turmoil: the recipe for a food security crisis in Madagascar? Mar Policy 36:218–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Luomba J, Chuenpagdee R, Song MA (2016) A bottom-up understanding of illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing in Lake Victoria. Sustainability 8:1062. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mayol T (2013) Madagascar’s nascent locally managed marine area network. Madag Conserv Dev 8(2):91–95. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nadon MO, Griffiths D, Doherty E (2005) The coral reefs of Andavadoaka, southwest Madagascar. Blue Ventures, London, p 29Google Scholar
  26. Raberinary D, Benbow S (2012) The reproductive cycle of Octopus cyanea in Southwest Madagascar and implications for fisheries management. Fish Res 125–126(126):190–197. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rittel HWJ, Webber MM (1973) Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sci 4:155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. SEED (2018) 2005 Seed winner Madagascar’s first community-run marine protected area. Accessed 10 Apr 2018
  29. Song AM, Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S (2013) Values, images, and principles: what they represent and how they may improve fisheries governance. Mar Policy 40:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. United Nations (2003) Village of Andavadoaka, Madagascar: marine reserves for octopus. In: Innovation for sustainable development: local case studies from Africa. United Nations, New York, pp 14–17Google Scholar
  31. United Nations (2012) Equator initiative case studies local sustainable development solutions for people, nature, and resilient communities. Village of Andavakoaka, p 17Google Scholar
  32. Van Heukelem WF (1973) Growth and life-span of Octopus cyanea (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). J Zool 169:299–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lovasoa Cédrique Augustave
    • 1
  1. 1.Norwegian College of Fishery ScienceUiT- The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations