Advertisement

Israel: Gaps in Educational Outcomes in a Changing Multi-Ethnic Society

  • Nura ReshEmail author
  • Nachum Blass
Chapter

Abstract

Our chapter offers a systematic review of research on ethnic inequalities in education in Israel from 1980 (and when relevant the decades before -‘60s, ‘70s) to 2015. In particular, it focuses on studies that investigate gaps between ethnic groups in terms of dropout rates, years of schooling, educational certificates (mainly high school – Bagrut) and academic achievement; quantitative outcomes that reflect how educational inequalities are conceptualized in Israeli research. Studies in this broad area shifted their attention over time: from comparing Jews of European-American descent (EA – Ashkenazim) with Jews from Afro-Asian descent (AA – Mizrachim) in the 50s-70s, to Russian and Ethiopian Jews with the “old-timers” Jewish majority and between the Jewish majority and the Arab minority from the 90s onwards. Research on the Jewish- Arab educational inequality was “postponed” until the ‘90s due to several reasons related to the specific position of this minority in the Israeli society as explained in the introductory chapter. However, their structural separation enabled the investigation of inequality in resource allocation and not only in educational outcomes. Research in this area relies usually on quantitative research methods and a positivistic approach to social sciences. A broad range of factors and processes are related to these gaps in ‘achievement’, such as: social class differences, differences in quality of neighborhoods and schools (and related resources or forms of ‘social’ and ‘cultural’ capital), ethnic and social composition of the school, ability grouping (tracking), duration of stay in Israel / generation, whether people have mixed ethnic backgrounds or not, discrimination in the allocation of financial and other resources, as well as disregard of the difficulties of ethnic cultural and lingual minorities.

Bibliography

  1. Abu-Asbah, K. (2007). Arab Education in Israel: Dilemmas of a National Minority. Jerusalem: Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Asbah, K. (2013). Gaps in Resource Allocation and Their Impact on the Output of the Arab Education System in Israel. In Y. Yonah, N. Mizrachi, & Y. Feniger (Eds.), Practices of Difference in Israeli Education: A View from Below (pp. 59–83). Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute and Hakibbutz Hameuchad (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  3. Abu-Rabia, S. (1998). Reading Arabic Texts: Effects of Text Type, Reader Type and Vowelization. Reading and Writing. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 10(2), 105–109.Google Scholar
  4. Abu-Rabia, S. (1999). The Effect of Arabic Vowels on the Reading Comprehension of Second- and Sixth-Grade Native Arab Children. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28(1), 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abu-Saad, I. (1991). Toward an Understanding of Minority Education in Israel: The Case of Bedouin Arabs of the Negev. Comparative Education, 27(2), 235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Adar, L. (1978). Do We Need the Term “Disadvantaged”? Iyunim BaHinuch, 18, 5–14 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  7. Addi-Raccah, A., Grinshtain, Y., & Bahak, H. (2015). Trends of Segregation or Integration in the Residential Environment Based on Socio-Economic Status of Pupils in the School. Presented at a conference on Inequality and Education: Connections with Growth in Socio-Economic Inequality, Initiative for Applied Education Research. http://yold.mpage.co.il/Uploads/BackgroundMaterials/english/SES_Segregation_EN.pdf
  8. Adler, C. (1984). School Integration in the Context of the Development of Israel’s Educational System. In Y. Amir & S. Sharan (Eds.), School Desegregation (pp. 21–46). Hillside: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Adler, Ch., & Blass, N. (1997). Inequality in Education in Israel 1997. Jerusalem: Taub Center (Hebrew). http://taubcenter.org.il/inequality-in-education-in-israel/
  10. Adler, Ch., & Blass, N. (2003). Inequality in Education in Israel 2003. Jerusalem: Taub Center. http://taubcenter.org.il/inequality-education-israel/
  11. Adler, C., & Blass, N. (2009). Inequality in Education in Israel 2009: The Way It Is. Jerusalem: Taub Center (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  12. Adler, C., & Sever, R. (1994). Beyond the Dead-End Alley of Mass Education. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  13. Adva Center. (2015). The National Project for Ethiopian Immigrants: Cooperation or Retreat from the State’s Obligation? Tel Aviv: Adva research Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  14. Aitkin, M., & Zuzovsky, R. (1994). Multi-Level Interaction Models and Their Use in the Analysis of Large-Scale School Effectiveness Studies. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 5, 45–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Al Haj, M. (1993). The Arab Educational System in Israel: Issues and Trends. Jerusalem: Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  16. Algerabli, M. (1975). Criteria for Characterizing the Social Composition of Schools and Allocation of Affirmative Action Funding Among Schools. Megamot, 21, 219–227 Hebrew.Google Scholar
  17. Allport, G. W. (Ed.). (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  18. Amir, Y. (1969). Contact Hypothesis in Ethnic Relations. Psychological Bulletin, 71, 319–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Amir, Y., & Sharan, S. (Eds.). (1984). School Desegregation. Hillside: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Amir, Y., Sharan, S., & Ben-Ari, R. (1984). Why Integration? In Y. Amir & S. Sharan (Eds.), School Desegregation (pp. 1–20). Hillside: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Angrist, J. D., & Lavy, V. (1999). Using Maimonides’ Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2), 533–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Anson, J., & Meir, A. (2006). Religiosity, Nationalism and Fertility in Israel. In J. Schellekens & J. Anson (Eds.), Israel’s Destiny: Fertility and Mortality in a Divided Society, Schnitzer Studies of Israeli Society (Vol. 12, pp. 29–52). New Brunswick: Israel Sociological Society.Google Scholar
  23. Arbiv-Elyashiv, R. (2011). School Dropout and Equality of Opportunity in Education: Combined Analysis of Individual Students’ Effect and the Role of School. Unpublished, Tel Aviv University (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  24. Arbiv-Elyashiv, R., & Zimmerman, V. (2013). Why Do Teachers Leave Teaching? Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on Teacher Education. Jerusalem: David Yellin Academic College of Education.Google Scholar
  25. Arzi, Y., & Amir, Y. (1977). Intellectual and Academic Achievements and Adjustment of Disadvantaged Students in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Classrooms. Child Development, 48, 726–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Asher, I. A. (2014). Class Size and Student–Teacher Ratio: Review of International Policies and Research Findings. Ministry of Education (Hebrew). http://meyda.education.gov.il/files/Scientist/classsizeN.pdf
  27. Atrash, A. (2011). Rates of Fertility Among Moslem Women in Israel: Patterns and Change Factors. In R. Hamaisi (Ed.) The Arabic Society Book (4) (pp. 47–62). Jerusalem: Hakibbutz Hameuchad and Van Leer Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  28. Ayalon, H. (1992). Community, Ethnic Origin and Students’ Chances of Entering Academic Tracks. Megamot, 35, 382–401 Hebrew.Google Scholar
  29. Ayalon, H. (2009). Types of Curriculum Differentiation and Achievement Inequality. In I. Kashti (Ed.), Evaluation, Curriculum Planning and the History of Education (pp. 331–354). Tel Aviv: Ramot (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  30. Ayalon, H., & Addi-Raccah, A. (2008). From High School to Higher Education: Curricular Policy and Participation in Higher Education in Israel. In A. Yogev (Ed.), Higher Education Expansion in Israel (pp. 77–110). Tel Aviv: Ramot and Tel Aviv University (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  31. Ayalon, H., & Yogev, A. (1997). Students, Schools and Enrollment in Science and Humanity Courses in Israeli Secondary Education. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19, 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Baker, B. (2016). Does Money Matter in Education? (2nd ed.). Albert Shanker Institute. http://www.shankerinstitute.org/resource/does-money-matter-second-edition
  33. Bar-Haim, E., Yaish, M., & Shavit, Y. (2008). Up the Down Staircase: EXPANSION and Stratification in Educational Systems. Israeli Sociology, 1, 61–79 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  34. Barber, M., & Mourshed, M. (2007). How the World’s Best-Performing School Systems Come Out on Top. London: McKinsey.Google Scholar
  35. Baruch-Kovarski, R., Ben-Rabi, D., & Constantivov, Ch. (2015). The National Project for the Ethiopian Community in Israel: The Educational Improvement Program. Research Report. Jerusalem: Brookdale Institute.Google Scholar
  36. Bashi, J., & Davis, D. (1981). Academic Achievements of Arab Elementary Schools in Israel. Jerusalem: Hebrew University School of Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  37. Ben Bassat, A., & Dahan, M. (2007). The Balance of Powers in the Budgetary Process. Jerusalem: Israel Democracy Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  38. Ben Bassat, A., & Dahan, M. (Eds.). (2009). The Political Economics of the Municipalities Israel Democracy Institute. Printed in Israel 2009 (Hebrew). https://www.idi.org.il/media/3871/all_heb.pdf
  39. Ben-David, D. (2014). The State of the Nation Report: Society, Economy and Policy in Israel. Jerusalem: Taub Center.Google Scholar
  40. Ben-David-Hadar, I. (2009). Excellence and Equality in Education: Level of Achievement and Achievement Gaps in Israeli High Schools. Megamot, 46, 356–379 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  41. Benavot, A. (1983). The Rise and Decline of vocational Education. Sociology of Education, 56, 63–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Blank, C., Shavit, Y., & Yaish, M. (2015). Tracking and Attainment in Israeli Secondary Education. Policy Research, Taub Center. http://taubcenter.org.il/wp-content/files_mf/trackingandattainmentinsecondaryeducationenglish.pdf.
  43. Blass, N. (1980). The Nurture Index: A Few Remarks for Consideration. Megamot, 26, 227–231 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  44. Blass, N. (2006). A Report on the Educational Infrastructure in the Bedouin Recognized Localities in the Negev (Mimeo not published Prepared for Daroma Idan Hanegev Hebrew).Google Scholar
  45. Blass, N. (2007). Literature Review on Funding Methods Used in Israel and Other Countries for Enacting a Policy of Affirmative Action (pp 61–85) in a Report of the Committee for the Establishment of Nurture Index and Allocation of Teaching Hours in Elementary Schools, the Chief Scientist office MoE. http://cms.education.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/BFC2C7C6-7068-4A78-887C-7D357CAEEB72/155757/resource_218430718.pdf
  46. Blass, N. (2008). Reducing Class Size: Budgetary and Educational Implications. Taub Center (Hebrew). http://taubcenter.org.il/wp-content/files_mf/h2008_class_size_reduction33.pdf
  47. Blass, N. (2009). Literature Review on Indicators Relating to Gaps and Inequality in Educational Systems, Initiative for Applied Education Research Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities Jerusalem 2009 (Hebrew). http://education.academy.ac.il/SystemFiles/23087.pdf
  48. Blass, N. (2015). Literature Review of Trends in Investing Resources in Education by Socio-Economic Standing: Public Investment (Local and National Government), Third-Sector Investment and Household Investment. http://yold.mpage.co.il/Uploads/BackgroundMaterials/english/SES_EN_resourceallocation.pdf
  49. Blass, N., & Amir, B. (1984). Integration in Education: The Development of a Policy. In Y. Amir & S. Sharan (Eds.), School Desegregation (pp. 63–98). Hillside: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Blass, N., & Krauss, M. (2009). Inequality in Resource Allocation and Affirmative Action in Elementary and Middle Schools. Hakol Hinuch Jerusalem (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  51. Blass, N., & Krauss, M. (2010). Inequality in Resource Allocation the Development of the Policy of Affirmative Action in Funding Primary Education. (Appeared on the Internet but Does Not Appear Anymore) Hakol Hinuch (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  52. Blass, N., Romanov, D., Almasi, C., Maagan, D., & Scheinberg, D. (2008). Characteristics of the Distribution of Teachers in Schools and Affirmative Action Policy. Jerusalem: Taub Center Policy Research (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  53. Blass, N., & Shavit, Y. (2016). Developments in the Education System in the Last Decade. In A. Weiss (Ed.), State of the Nation Report: Society, Economy and Policy in Israel (pp. 111–114). Jerusalem: Taub Center. http://taubcenter.org.il/developments-in-the-education-system-over-the-past-decade/
  54. Blass, N., Tsur, S., & Zussman, N. (2010). The Allocation of Teachers’ Working Hours in Primary Education, 2001–2009. Discussion Paper No. 2010.18. Jerusalem: Bank of Israel. http://www.boi.org.il/en/Research/Pages/papers_dp1018e.aspx
  55. Bodovski, K., & Benavot, A. (2006). Unequal Educational Outcomes Among First-Generation Immigrants: The Case of Youth from the Former Soviet Union in Israel. Research in Comparative and International Education, 1(3), 253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Bohrnstedt, G. W., & Stecher, B. M. (1999). Class Size Reduction in California: Early Evaluation Findings, 1996–1998. Palo Alto: American Institutes for Research.Google Scholar
  57. Bolotin-Chachashvili, S., Shavit, Y., & Ayalon, H. (2002). Reform, Expansion and Opportunity in Israeli Higher Education from the Early 1980s to the Late 1990s. Israeli Sociology, 4(2), 317–345.Google Scholar
  58. Borman, G., & Dowling, N. M. (2010). Schools and Inequality: A Multilevel Analysis of Coleman’s Equality of Educational Opportunity Data. Teachers College Records, 112, 1201–1246.Google Scholar
  59. Buckingham, J. (2003). The Missing Links: Class Size, Discipline, Inclusion and Teacher Quality. St. Leonards: Centre for Independent Studies.Google Scholar
  60. Cahan, S. (1987). Unintended Discrimination in the Determination of Eligibility and Allocation of Affirmative Action Resources in Education. Megamot, 29, 379–401.Google Scholar
  61. Cahan, S. (2009). Discrimination in the Allocation of Resources for Compensatory Education to Israeli Junior High. Megamot, 46, 2–37 Hebrew).Google Scholar
  62. Cahan, S., & Linchevski, L. (1996). The Cumulative Effect of Ability Grouping on Mathematical Achievement: A Longitudinal Perspective. Studies of educational Evaluation, 22, 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (1997). Survey of Education and Welfare Services: Primary and Middle Schools, Hebrew and Arab Education. Publication 1066. Jerusalem: CBS (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  64. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (1999). Survey of Education and Welfare Services: Secondary Schools, Hebrew and Arab Education. Publication 1101. Jerusalem: CBS (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  65. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (2008). Statistical Abstract of Israel Jerusalem, 2008.Google Scholar
  66. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (2010). Statistical Abstract of Israel Jerusalem, 2010.Google Scholar
  67. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (2015). Statistical Abstract of Israel Jerusalem, 2015.Google Scholar
  68. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (2016). Statistical Abstract of Israel Jerusalem, 2016.Google Scholar
  69. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). (2017). Statistical Abstract of Israel Jerusalem, 2017.Google Scholar
  70. Chachashvili-Bolotin, S. (2007). Academic Achievement After Immigration: The Effect of Immigration from the Former Soviet Union in the 1990s on the Achievement of Immigrants and Israeli-Born Students. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Tel Aviv University (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  71. Chachashvili-Bolotin, S., Shavit, Y., & Ayalon, H. (2011). Immigration in the 1990s from the former Soviet Union and the Higher Education System in Israel in the First Half of the 1990s. Economic Herald of the Donbass, 4(26), 106–113.Google Scholar
  72. Chen, M. (1975). Sponsored and Contesting Mobility in the Secular and Religious Educational System in Israel. Megamot, 22, 2–19 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  73. Chen, M., Kfir, D., & Lewy, A. (1976). Coping with Students’ Achievement Heterogeneity in Middle Schools. Megamot, 23, 379–396 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  74. Chen, M., Lewy, A., & Adler, C. (1978). Educational Process and Outcome: Evaluating the Contribution of the Middle School to the School System. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  75. Cohen, Y., Haberfeld, Y., & Kristal, T. (2007). Ethnicity and Mixed Ethnicity: Educational Gaps Among Israeli-Born Jews. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30, 896–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Cohen-Kdoshai, O., & Rigbi, A. (2014). Achievement of Ethiopia-Origin Students – Newcomers and Israeli-Born Descendants – Based on Meitzav Results. RAMA (National Authority for Measurement and Evaluation in Education) XXX (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  77. Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., & Weinfeld, F. D. (1966). Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  78. Dagan-Buzaglo, N. (2003). The Right to Higher Education in Israel: A Legal and Fiscal Perspective. Tel Aviv: Adva Research Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  79. Dagan-Buzaglo, E. (2007). The Right to Higher Education in Israel: Legal and Financial Aspects. Tel Aviv: Adva Research Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  80. Dahan, M., Dvir, E., Mironichev, N., & Shye, S. (2003). Have the Gaps in Education Narrowed? On Factors Determining Eligibility for the Israeli Matriculation Certificate. Israel Economic Review, 2, 37–69.Google Scholar
  81. Dahan, Y., & Yona, Y. (2005). The Dovrat Report: On the Neoliberal Revolution in Education. Theory and Criticism, 27, 11–38 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  82. Dar, Y. (1997). Integration Versus Open Market in the Israel Educational System. Mifneh (Forum for Social Issues), 16, 11–16 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  83. Dar, Y., & Resh, N. (1986). Classroom Composition and Pupil Achievement: A Study of Ability-Based Classes; new edition, 2018. New York: Gordon & Breach.Google Scholar
  84. Dar, Y., & Resh, N. (1988). Educational Integration and Academic Achievement: Summary and Evaluation of Research in Israel. Megamot, 31, 180–207 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  85. Dar, Y., & Resh, N. (1996). Exploring the Persistence of Academic Achievement Gaps. In A. Pallas (Ed.), Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization (Vol. 11, pp. 216–233). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  86. Dar, Y., & Resh, N. (1997). Separating and Mixing Students for Learning: Concepts and Research. In R. Ben-Ari & I. Rich (Eds.), Enhancing Education in Heterogeneous Schools: Theory and Application (pp. 191–214). Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press.Google Scholar
  87. DellaPergola, S. (1998). The Global Context of Migration to Israel. In E. Leshem & J. Shuval (Eds.), Immigration to Israel: Studies of Israeli Society (Vol. 8, pp. 51–92). New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  88. Dobrin, N. (2015). Equality of Opportunity in Education: Demographic and Socioeconomic Barriers. Jerusalem: CBS (Hebrew). http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/pw91.pdf
  89. Egozi, M. (1980). The Effect of Class Social Composition on Academic Achievement of Students from Various Social Strata. Research Report. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  90. Eisenstadt, S. N. (1956). From Generation to Generation: Age Group and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  91. Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, C. L., & Olson, L. S. (2005). First Grade and Educational Attainments by Age 22: A New Story. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 1458–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Eshel, Y., & Kurman, J. (1990). Ethnic Equity and Asymmetry in Peer Acceptance. Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 713–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Eviatar, Z., Ibrahim, R., Karelitz, T., & Ben Simon, A. (2016). Speed of Reading Texts in Arabic and Hebrew. Report RR-16-06. National Institute for Testing and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  94. Feniger, Y. (2015). Jewish Ethnicity and Educational Opportunity in Israel: Evidence from a Curriculum Reform. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 18, 567–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Feniger, Y. (in press). Attitudes, Aspiration and Achievement Among Minority Students in Israel. In R. Arbiv-Elyashiv, Y. Feniger, & Y. Shavit (Eds.), Equality of Opportunities in Education: Current Developments in Theory and Research. Tel Aviv: Mofet (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  96. Feniger, Y., & Ayalon, H. (2016). English as a Gatekeeper: Inequality Between Jews and Arabs in Access to Higher Education in Israel. International Journal of Educational Research, 76, 104–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Feniger, Y., Mcdossi, O., & Ayalon, H. (2015). Ethno-Religious Differences in Israeli Higher Education: Vertical and Horizontal Dimensions. European Sociological Review, 31(4), 383–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Feniger, Y., & Shavit, Y. (2011). Fertility and Educational Achievement: Israel in a Comparative Perspective. Israeli Sociology, 13(1), 55–80 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  99. Fuchs, H., & Brand, G. (2015). Education and Employment Among Ethiopian Israelis. Jerusalem: Taub Center (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  100. Frankenstein, C. (1970). Impaired Intelligence: Pathology and Rehabilitation. London: Gordon & Breach.Google Scholar
  101. Fretchman, M., & Chen, M. (1996). Segregation, Non-Preferences and Other-Preferences in Integrated Classrooms. Israel Social Sciences Research, 11, 23–46.Google Scholar
  102. Friedlender, D., Eisenbach, Z., Ben Moshe, E., Ben Hur, D., Lunievski, S., Hleihel, A., & Lion-Elmakias, L. (2000). Religion, Ethnicity, Type of Locality and Educational Attainments Among Israeli Population: An Analysis of Change over Time. Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Dept. of Population Studies.Google Scholar
  103. Gaziel, H. (1996). Politics and Policy Making in the Israeli Educational System. Chicago: Independent Publishers.Google Scholar
  104. Gibton, D. (2011). Post-2000 Law-Based Educational Governance in Israel: From Equality to Diversity. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 39, 434–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Golan-Agnon, D. (2005). Inequality in Education. Tel Aviv: Babel (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  106. Goldring, E., & Addi, A. (1989). Using Meta-Analysis to Study Policy Issues: The Ethnic Composition of Classroom and Academic Achievement in Israel. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 15, 231–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Goldshmidt, N., & Glikman, H. (2012). The Achievement of Immigrant Students from the Former Soviet Union as Reflected in the Meitzav (National Test), 2007–2010. Jerusalem: The National Authority of Educational Evaluation (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  108. Goldstein, S. (1995). Liberty vs. Equality: Concerning Student Placement in State schools in Israel, the Changing Views of the Supreme Court. In R. Kahane (Ed.), Educational Advancement and Distributive Justice: Between Equality and Equity (pp. 311–325). Jerusalem: Magnes Press.Google Scholar
  109. Hamer, Z. (Minister of Education) (1985). Introduction. In Y. Amir & Sh. Sharan (Eds.), Educational Integration (p. 7). Tel Aviv: Am Oved (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  110. Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  111. Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1987). Cooperation and Helping in the Classroom: A Contextual Approach. International Journal of Research in Education, 13, 113–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., & Fuch, I. (1988). Cooperative Learning in the Classroom. Haifa: Ach (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  113. Herzog, E. (1998). The Bureaucratic Absorption of Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel: Segregation, Not Integration. In A. Abuav, E. Herzog, H. Goldberg, & E. Marx (Eds.), Israel: Local Anthropology (pp. 133–156). Tel Aviv: Tcherikover (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  114. Horovitz, T. (Ed.). (1999). Children of Perestroika in Israel. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  115. Human Development Report. (2016). Human Development for Everyone. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf
  116. Ichilov, O. (2010). The Foundation of Public Education in Israel and the Retreat from It. In O. Ichilov (Ed.), Privatization and Marketization of Israeli Public Education (pp. 21–50). Tel Aviv: Ramot (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  117. Justman, M. (Ed.). (2014). Differential Budgeting of Education to Compensate for Socioeconomic Disadvantage. Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  118. Kennet-Cohen, T., Cohen, Y., & Oren, C. (2005). Comparison of Achievements in the Jewish and Arab Sectors at Various Stages of the Education System. National Institute for Testing and Evaluation (Hebrew). https://www.nite.org.il/files/reports/327.pdf
  119. Kfir, D. (1988). Achievement and Aspirations in Secondary Schools: Comparison of Boys and Girls of African-Asian and European-American Origin. Studies in Education, 48, 141–160 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  120. Kfir, D., & Chen, M. (1985). Inter-Ethnic School Integration and the Making of Adolescent Personality. In A. Ziv (Ed.), The Unusual Age (pp. 227–256). Tel Aviv: Papirus (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  121. Klein, Z., & Eshel, Y. (1977). Toward a Psycho-Social Model of Education Integration in School. Megamot, 23, 119–133 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  122. Klein, Z., & Eshel, Y. (1980). Integrating Jerusalem schools. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  123. Klein, Z., & Eshel, Y. (1981). Integration and Advancement of Educational Aims in Israel. Megamot, 26, 271–282 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  124. Klinov, R. (2010). Financing Elementary and Lower Secondary Schools 2003–2008. Jerusalem: Maurice Falk Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  125. Lavy, V. (1998). Disparities Between Arabs and Jews in School Resources and Student Achievement in Israel. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 47(1), 175–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Lavy, V. (2003). Education in Recent Decades and Its Effect on Social Gaps. In S. Shay & N. Zion (Eds.), Education and Social Justice: On Equality of Opportunity in Education (pp. 44–64). Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  127. Lerner, Y., & Faldachi, R. (2013). Russians in Israel. Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute & Hakibbutz Hameuchad (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  128. Levi, A. (1999). The Development of Affirmative Action Policy in the Israeli Educational System. In E. Peled (Ed.), Fifty Years of Israeli Education (pp. 109–134). Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  129. Levin, Y., & Chen, M. (1977). Sociometric Choice in Integrated Classrooms. Megamot, 23, 189–208 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  130. Levin, T., Shohami, I., & Spolaski, D. (2003). The Academic Status of Immigrant Students. Research Report. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University, School of Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  131. Lewy, A. (1977). Class Composition, the Gap Between Ethnic Groups and Achievement Progress. Megamot, 23, 88–97 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  132. Lewy, A., & Chen, M. (1976). Narrowing Achievement Gap or Accumulating Deficit in the Elementary School. Studies in Educational Management and Organization, 4, 3–52 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  133. Lifshitz, Ch., Noam, G., & Buzaglo, M. (1997). The Integration of Ethiopian-Born Students in the Educational System. Report of an Evaluation Research. Jerusalem: Joint-Brookdale Institute (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  134. Litwin, U. (1971). Allocation of Educational Resources in Light of Pupils’ Achievements in the Seker Examination. Megamot 18: 166–186 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  135. Maagan, D. (2016). Longitudinal Studies in the Educational System. Presentation Prepared for a Symposium on “Longitudinal Data as a Source of Information for Educational Policy,” sponsored by The Initiative for Applied Education Research, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  136. Maagan, D. (2017). Future Achievements of Students Who Were Tested in Meitzav Tests. Jerusalem: CBS (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  137. Mar’i, S. (1978). Arab Education in Israel. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Mar’I, S. (1985). The Future of Palestinian Arab Education in Israel. Journal of Palestine Studies, 14, 52–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ministry of Education. (2002). Report of the Committee for Investigating the Funding of Elementary Education. Shoshani Committee. Jerusalem: Author (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  140. Ministry of Education. (2013). Facts and Figures (Special Issue for the OECD).Google Scholar
  141. Ministry of Education. (2015). Report of the Committee for Investigating Pupil–Teacher Ratios in the classroom. Simhon Committee (Hebrew). http://meyda.education.gov.il/files/Scientist/classsizeN.pdf
  142. Ministry of Education. (2016a). Education at a Glance (Special Issue for the OECD).Google Scholar
  143. Ministry of Education. (2016b). Facts and Figures. Jerusalem (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  144. Minkovich, A., Davis, D., & Bashi, J. (1977). Success and Failure in Israeli Elementary Education: An Evaluation Study with Special Emphasis on Disadvantaged Pupils. New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  145. Mizrachi, N., Goodman, Y. C., & Feniger, Y. (2009). “I Don’t Want to See It”: Decoupling Ethnicity and Class from Social Structure in Jewish Israeli High Schools. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32, 1203–1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Moustafa, M. (2010). Psychometric Exam: Barrier to University Entrance for Arab Citizens of Israel. Dirasat Arab Center for Law and Policy. http://www.dirasat-aclp.org/files/Psy-English-Summary-2010.pdf
  147. Mustafa, M., & Jabareen, Y. (2013). Selected Bibliography of Works on the Arab-Palestinian Community in Israel: 1990–2012. Dirasat the Arab center for law and policy http://dirasat-aclp.org/index.asp?i=711
  148. Nachmias, R., & Zuzovsky, R. (2009). Eighth Graders’ Mathematics and Science Achievement and the Educational Context of Teaching and Learning These Subjects in Israel: Findings from the TIMSS 2007. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  149. Nesher, P. (1996). The Nurture Index: Principles of Allocation. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  150. OECD. (2013). PISA 2012 Results. Excellence Through Equity: Giving Every Student the Chance to Succeed (Volume II). PISA, OECD.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264201132-en
  151. Okun, B. (2007). Insight into Ethnic Influx: Marriage Patterns Among Jews of Mixed Ancestry in Israel. In J. Schellkens & J. Anson (Eds.), Israel’s Destiny: Fertility and Mortality in a Divided Society, Snitzer Studies in Israeli Society (Vol. 12, pp. 145–164). New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  152. Ortar, G. (1967). Educational Achievement of Primary School Graduates in Israel as Related to Their Socio-Cultural Background. Comparative Education, 4, 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Peleg, R., & Adler, C. (1977). Compensatory Education in Israel: Conceptions, Attitudes and Trends. American Psychologist, 32, 945–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pollack, E. (2012). Weighted Student Funding in the Israeli Education System. Koret-Milken Institute. http://milkeninnovationcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/57-EN-S-W.pdf
  155. Price Waterhouse-Cooper. (2002). Study of Additional Educational Needs: Phase II. Final Report DfES. London: Author.Google Scholar
  156. RAMA (National Authority for Measurement and Evaluation in Education). (2016). National Meitzav Exams (Hebrew). http://cms.education.gov.il/EducationCMS/Units/Rama/Meitzav/DochotMaarachtim.htm
  157. Rapoport, T., & Lomski-Feder, E. (1994). Israel. In K. Hurelmann (Ed.), International Handbook of Adolescence (pp. 207–224). Westport: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  158. Rapoport, T., & Lomski-Feder, E. (2012). Israelis in Their Own Way. Jerusalem: Magnes Press (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  159. Resh, N. (1989). Track Placement in Secular and Religious High Schools in Israel. Megamot, 32, 958–974 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  160. Resh, N. (1998). Track Placement: How the “Sorting Machine” Works in Israel. American Journal of Education, 106, 416–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Resh, N., & Benavot, A. (2009). Educational Governance, School Autonomy, and Curriculum Implementation: Diversity and Uniformity in Knowledge Offering to Israeli Pupils. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41, 67–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Resh, N., & Dar, Y. (1992). Learning Segregation in Junior High Schools in Israel: Causes and Consequences. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 3, 272–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Resh, N., & Dar, Y. (1996). Segregation Within Integration in Israel Junior High Schools. Israel Social Science Research, 11, 1–22.Google Scholar
  164. Resh, N., & Dar, Y. (2000). Separation and Mixing in Education: Who Wins? Who Loses? Iyunim b’Hinuch (new series) 4, 5–30 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  165. Resh, N., & Dar, Y. (2012). The Rise and the Fall of School Integration in Israel. British Journal of Educational Research, 38, 929–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Resh, N., & Erhard, R. (2002). “Pushing-up” or “Cooling-out”? Israeli Counselors Guidance on Track Placement. Interchange, 33, 325–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Resh, N., & Kfir, D. (2004). Educational Integration in Israel: Thirty Years of Ambivalent Policy. Megamot, 43(1), 33–63 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  168. Resnik, J. (2007). Discourse Structuration in Israel, Democratization of Education and the Impact of the Global Network. Journal of Education Policy, 22, 147–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schwarzwald, J., & Amir, Y. (1994). Inter-Ethnic Relations Among army Soldiers as Related to Their Integration Experience in Middle Schools. Megamot, 35, 359–374 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  170. Schwarzwald, J., & Cohen, S. (1982a). Relationship Between Academic Tracking and the Degree of Interethnic Acceptance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 4, 588–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Schwarzwald, J., & Cohen, S. (1982b). Social Relations in Integrated Middle Schools and Their Connection to Ethnic Origin and to Learning Position. Megamot, 28, 404–421 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  172. Schwarzwald, J., & Hoffman, M. (1993). Academic Status and Ethnicity as Determinants of Social Acceptance. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 24, 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sever, R. (2000). Processes of Immigration and Absorption. In Y. Kop & E. Litan (Eds.), Pluralism in Israel: From Melting Pot to “Mixed Jerusalemite” (pp. 165–184). Jerusalem: The Research Center for Social Policy in Israel (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  174. Sever, R. (2002). School Dropout as Related to Absorption of the New Immigrant. Jerusalem: The Center for Social Policy Analysis (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  175. Sever, R. (2004). Immigrant Integration Policy in the Israeli Educational System. Megamot, 43, 145–169 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  176. Shapira, R., Hayman, F., & Shavit, R. (1995). Autonomy as Ethos, Content and Commodity: An Israeli Model for Controlled Choice of Autonomous Schools. In R. Kahane (Ed.), Educational Advancement and Distributive Justice: Between Equality and Equity (pp. 341–357). Jerusalem: Magnes Press.Google Scholar
  177. Sharan, S. (1980). Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes and Ethnic Relations. Review of Educational Research, 50, 241–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Sharan, S. (Ed.). (1990). Cooperative Learning: Theory and Research. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  179. Sharan, S., & Shachar, H. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of Cooperative Learning and Method. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  180. Sharan, Y., & Sharan, S. (1994). Group Investigations. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  181. Shavit, Y., & Arad-Weiss, H. (1987). Ethnic Integration and Inequality in Grades and Aspirations. Megamot, 30, 288–304 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  182. Shavit, Y., Ayalon, H., Chachashvili-Bolotin, S., & Menachem, G. (2007). Diversification, Expansion and Inequality in Israeli Higher Education. In Y. Shavit, R. Arum, & A. Gamoran (Eds.), Stratification in Higher Education: A Comparative Study (pp. 39–62). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  183. Shavit, Y., & Bronstein, V. (2011). Education Reform and Narrowing Educational Gaps in Israel. http://taubcenter.org.il/education-reform-and-narrowing-educational-gaps-in-israel/
  184. Shavit, Y., & Muller, W. (1998). From School to Work: A Comparative Study of Educational Stratification and Occupational Destination. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  185. Shtal, A. (1970). A Bibliography on “Disadvantaged” Issue. In S. Adiel (Ed.), A Decade of Affirmative Action Activity (pp. 180–183). Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  186. Smilansky, S., & Shephatiah, L. (1977). Socio-Cultural Integration and Other Classroom Variables as Related to Achievement in Grades One and Two. Megamot, 23, 79–87 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  187. Stier, H., & Shavit, Y. (2007). Age at Marriage, Sex Ratios, and Ethnic Heterogamy. In J. Schellkens & J. Anson (Eds.), Israel’s Destiny: Fertility and Mortality in a Divided Society, Snitzer Studies in Israeli Society (Vol. 12, pp. 131–144). New Brunswick: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  188. Swirski, S. (1981). Orientals and Ashkenazim in Israel, the Ethnic Division of Labor. Haifa: Machbarot Lemechkar (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  189. Swirski, S. (1990). Education in Israel: The Realm of Separate Tracks. Tel Aviv: Brerot (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  190. Swirski, S., Conor-Atias, E., & Zelinger, R. (2015). Israel: Social Report 2015 – No Change in Inequality Trends in Sight. Adva Research Institute. http://adva.org/en/social-report2015/
  191. Swirski, S., & Dagan-Buzaglo, N. (2014). Inequality and Transparency in the Education Budget in Israel. Tel Aviv: Adva research Institute. http://adva.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/%D7%97%D7%99%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%9AA41.pdf (Hebrew).
  192. Swirski, S., & Swirski, B. (2002). Ethiopian Jews in Israel: Living Conditions, Occupation and Education. Adva Center. Information on Equality, 11, 24–36 (Hebrew). http://www.adva.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/gil11.pdf
  193. Vininger, E. (2013). Data on the Placement of Arab Teachers in the Educational System. Knesset Research Center (Hebrew). https://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m03188.pdf
  194. Vorgan, Y. (2007). Placement of Arab Teachers in the Educational System. Knesset Research Center. https://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m01941.pdf (Hebrew).
  195. Vorgan, Y. (2011). Student Dropout Rates. Jerusalem: Knesset Research Center (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  196. Wexler, M. (2004). The Privatization of Education and the Destruction of Public Education. In D. Golan-Agnon (Ed.), Inequality in Education (pp. 42–58). Babel.: (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  197. Yair, G. (1991). The Nurture Index: Three Paradoxes and Empirical Tests. Comments on the Affirmative Action Policy of the 1990s. Megamot, 33, 1–26 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  198. Yair, G. (1996). School Organization and Market Ecology: A Realist Sociological Look at the Infrastructure of School Choice. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 17, 453–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Yogev, A. (1981). Determinants of Early Educational Career in Israel: Further Evidence for the Sponsorship Thesis. Sociology of Education, 54, 181–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Yogev, A., & Ayalon, H. (1982). The Effect of Gender and Ethnic Origin on Higher Education Expectations in Israel. Megamot, 4, 349–366 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  201. Yogev, A., & Ayalon, H. (1991). Learning to Labour or Labouring to Learn? Curriculum Stratification in Israeli Vocational High Schools. International Journal of Educational Development, 11, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Yogev, A., & Ayalon, H. (2006). Stratification and Diversity in the Expanded System of Higher Education in Israel. Higher Education Policy, 19, 187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Yogev, A., & Jamshy, H. (1983). Children of Ethnic Intermarriage in Israeli Schools: Are They Marginal? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 965–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Yogev, A., & Rodity, H. (1987). School Counselors as Gate Keepers: Guidance in Poor Versus Affluent Neighborhoods. Adolescence, 22, 625–639.Google Scholar
  205. Yona, Y., & Saporta, I. (2003). Nationality, Gender and Ethnicity in Vocational Education in Israel. Theory and Criticism, 22, 35–66 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  206. Willms, J. D., & Chen, M. (1989). The Effects of Ability Grouping on the Ethnic Achievement Gap in Israeli Elementary Schools. American Journal of Education, 97, 237–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Zussman, N., & Tsur, S. (2010). The Contribution of Vocational vs. Academic High School Education to Educational and Occupational Attainments. Bank Israel Survey, 84, 197–250 (Hebrew).Google Scholar
  208. Zuzovsky, R. (2008). Closing Gaps Between Hebrew-Speaking and Arabic-Speaking Students in Israel: Findings from TIMSS 2003. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 34(2), 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Zuzovsky, R. (2010). The Impact of Socioeconomic Versus Linguistic Factors on Achievement Gaps Between Hebrew-Speaking and Arabic-Speaking Students in Israel in Reading Literacy and in Mathematics and Science Achievement. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 36, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Zuzovsky, R., & Olshtain, E. (2008). PIRLS 2006: Reading Literacy Study in Israel. Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv University (Hebrew).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Taub CenterJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations