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Indicators and Facilitators of Engagement: Going Beyond Linear Thinking

  • Clarence Ng
  • Brendan Bartlett
  • Stephen N. Elliott
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides a brief review of current research models on learning engagement, highlighting the distinction between indicators and facilitators of engagement. In relation to engagement indicators, this chapter discusses research that has examined behavioral, cognitive, and affective dimensions of engagement. Alongside these indicators, we add social engagement wherein students collaborate and work with others as an important indicator of engagement. In relation to facilitators of engagement, this chapter briefly discusses the importance of a list of cognitive enablers for promoting learning engagement. These cognitive enablers include achievement goals, self-efficacy, self-determination, self-regulation, and personal interest. It also discusses the importance of social influences derived from sociocultural, institutional, and classroom dimensions on sustaining learning engagement. Linking to the discussion in Chap.  1, we argue that many students from disadvantaged backgrounds lack these cognitive enablers and specific attention is needed to create learning opportunities to engage these students in meaningful participation. To do this, we argue that there is a need to consider the dynamic interplay of cognitive and social influences, disadvantaged students’ perspectives, and the negotiated nature of engagement.

Keywords

Engagement theory Engagement indicator Engagement facilitator Disengagement Motivation Sociocultural influences Student voice 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clarence Ng
    • 1
  • Brendan Bartlett
    • 2
  • Stephen N. Elliott
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Learning Sciences & Teacher EducationAustralian Catholic UniversityBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Education & ArtsAustralian Catholic UniversityVirginiaAustralia
  3. 3.Sanford School of Social and Family DynamicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

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