Quantitative Modeling of Lower Ionospheric Response Due to Solar X-ray Flare: A Propagating Radio Wave Simulation Approach

  • Tamal Basak
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP, volume 53)


The ionosphere is an expansive natural detector and it characteristically reacts to ionizing influences coming from sun and other extraterrestrial energetic sources. In this article, first we give a brief review of earlier works performed specifically on Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio signal interaction with D-region ionosphere. Those are mainly related to the D-region ‘response time delay’ as experienced by VLF signal (△ t), effective recombination coefficient (αeff) and its connection with the D-region electron density (Ne) and other essential parameters during X-ray solar flares. Further, we present the measurement techniques and the observed results regarding the same time delay (△ t) experienced by VLF signal with respect to the X-ray flux variation of solar flares. Several research groups have developed many lower ionospheric models based on theoretical and experimental results to deal with those above mentioned quantities. We follow a rather simplified model proposed by J. Wait for D-region through the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) numerical code to estimate the Ne using flare induced amplitude-perturbation (△ A). Now, we use this △ t and Ne-profile for estimation of the effective recombination coefficient (αeff). Lastly, we analyse the results and conclude.



Author is indebted to Prof. Sandip Kumar Chakrabarti for his guidance and kind contribution behind conceptualization of this work. Author acknowledges the contribution of Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata for allowing him to use the data and their research facilities. Author is thankful to Dr. S. Sasmal (ICSP, Kolkata), Dr. S. Pal (CU, Kolkata), Dr. S. Palit (UPM, Brazil), Mr. S. Chakraborty (SNBNCBS, Kolkata), Dr. S.K. Mondal (SKBU, Purulia, WB) and Dr. S. Ray (ICSP, Kolkata) for their scientific advice.


  1. 1.
    Appleton, E.V.: J. Atmos. Terre. Phy. 3, 282–284 (1953)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balachandra Swamy, A.C.: Astrophy. Space Sc. 185, 153–164 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Basak, T, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Calcutta (2013).
  4. 4.
    Basak, T., Chakrabarti, S.K.: ApSS 348(2), 315–326 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., et al.: J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 86, 65–70 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakrabarti S.K., Sasmal S., Chakravorty S., Basak T., Tucker R.: Adv. Space Res. 62(3), 651–661 (2018)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chakraborty S., Sasmal S., Basak T., Ghosh S., Palit S., Chakrabarti S.K., Ray, S.: Adv. Space Res. 60(8), 1787–1796 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ferguson, J.A.: Version 2.0., Technical document 3030, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friedrich, M., Torkar, K.M., Steiner, R.J.: ASR 34, 1937–1942 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gledhill, J.A.: Radio Sc. 21(30), 399–408 (1986)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glukhov V.S., Pasko V.P., Inan U.S.: J. Geophys. Res. 97(A11), 16971–16979 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grubor, D., Sulic, D., Zigman, V.: Serb. Astron. J. 171, 29–35 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lehtinen N.G., Inan U.S.: Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L08804 (2007). ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mitra, A.P.: In: Landmark (ed.) Advances in Upper Atmosphere Research, pp. 57–87. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1963)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mitra, A.P.: Ionospheric Effects of Solar Flares. D. Reidel Pub. Co., Holland (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mitra, S.K.: The Upper Atmosphere. The Asiatic Society, Calcutta (1992)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mitra, A.P., Jones, R.E.: JGR 50(3), 391–406 (1953)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mitra, A.P., Rowe, J.N.: JATP 34, 795–806 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitra, A.P., Rowe, J.N.: JATP 36(11), 1797–1808 (1974)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nina, A., Cadez, V., Sulic, D., Sreckovic, V., Zigman, V.: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 279, 106–109 (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Osepian, A., Kirkwood, S., Dalin, P., Tereschenko, V.: Ann. Geo. 27, 3713–3724 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Parthasarathy, R., Rai, D. B., Scientific Report No. 1, Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska (1965)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palit, S., Basak, T., Mondal, S.K., Pal, S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 9159–9168 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Palit, S., Basak T., Pal, S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Astrophys. Space Sci. 356(1), 19–28 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Poppoff, I.G., Whitten, R.C.: JGR 67(7), 2986–2988 (1962)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pozo, C.F. del, Hargraves, J.K., Aylward, A.D.: JASTP 59(15), 1919–1943 (1997)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sasmal, S., Basak, T., Chakraborty, S., Palit, S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 122(7), 7698–7712 (2017)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schunk, R.W. (ed.): CASS, Utah State University, Logan (1996)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thomson, N.R., Clilverd, M.A.: J. Atmos. Terres. Phys. 63, 1729–1737 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thomson, N.R., Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A.: J. Geophys. Res. 110, A06306 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Valnicek, B., Ranzinger, P.: Bull. Astron. Inst. Czech. 23, 318–322 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wagner, L.S., Thome, G.D.: Radio Sc. 7(4), 469–480 (1972)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wait, J.R.: Electromagnetic waves in stratified media. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1962)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wait, J.R., Spies, K.P.: NBS Tech. Note 300 (1964)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Whitten, R.C., Poppoff, I.G.: JGR 66(9), 2779–2786 (1961)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Whitten, R.C., Poppoff, I.G.: JGR 67(3), 1183–1185 (1962)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Whitten, R.C., Poppoff, I.G., Edmonds, R.S., Berning, W.W.: JGR 70(7), 1737–1742 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zigman, V., Grubor, D., Sulic, D.: J. Atmos. Terres. Phys. 69, 775–792 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tamal Basak
    • 1
  1. 1.Amity UniversityRajarhat, New Town, KolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations