Advertisement

Variability Properties of Galactic Black Holes

  • Broja Gopal Dutta
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP, volume 53)

Abstract

In X-ray binaries, fast variability in X-ray emission on time-scales of milli-seconds to seconds is a common and very complex phenomenon. The variability of astronomical sources is usually expressed as a time series. The study of variability property implies the time series analysis of the light curve obtained from various sources. These study includes the study of Power Density Spectrum (PDS) and time/phase lag spectrum. Studies of energy dependent temporal properties (i.e.,variability properties) in different variability time scale for the nearly edge on (high inclination) and nearly face on (low inclination) compact binary sources could through-light the detail structure of the accretion geometry. Again, the evolutionary picture of variability parameters, such as QPO frequency, time lag and energy dependent lag for transient and persistent sources can be studied with the simplified framework of Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) solution. However, even with this simplified model and employing Monte-Carlo simulation technique, the simulated spectral behavior can be tested with the observational results. Thus it is possible to answer the cause of hard and soft lag and their transitions in higher inclination sources within the framework of a single TCAF solution. Also the evolution of the low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LFQPOs) and associated time lag in transient and persistently variable black hole sources as a function of time can be explained by variation of the Compton cloud size in a Two Component Advective Flow solution (TCAF).

Notes

Acknowledgements

I like to thank Prof. S. K. Chakrabarti for his continuous advice and guidance during and as well as after the PhD work. I acknowledge T. Belloni for providing the timing analysis software GHATS.

References

  1. 1.
    Cabanac, C., Henri, G., Petrucci, P.O., Malzac, J., Ferreira, J., Belloni, T.M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 738–748 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16340.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cambier, H.J., Smith, D.M.: Astrophys. J. 767, 46 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/767/1/46 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Manickam, S.G.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 531, L41–L44 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1086/312512 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Nandi, A., Choudhury, A., Chatterjee, U.: Astrophys. J. 607, 406–409 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1086/383235 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Nandi, A., Chatterjee, A.K., Choudhury, A.K., Chatterjee, U.: Astron. Astrophys. 431, 825–830 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20041662 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Debnath, D., Nandi, A., Pal, P.S.: Astron. Astrophys. 489, L41–L44 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:200810136 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Dutta, B.G., Pal, P.S.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 394, 1463–1468 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14328.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chakrabarti, S.K., Mondal, S., Debnath, D.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 452, 3451–3456 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv1566 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chatterjee, D., Debnath, D., Chakrabarti, S.K., Mondal, S., Jana, A.: Astrophys. J. 827, 88 (2016). https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/827/1/88 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chatterjee, A., Chakrabarti, S.K., Ghosh, H.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 472, 1842–1849 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1916 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Choudhury, M., Rao, A.R.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 616, L143–L146 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1086/426543 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cui, W.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 524, L59–L62 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1086/312296 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cui, W., Zhang, S.N., Chen, W.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 531, L45–L48 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1086/312520 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Debnath, D., Chakrabarti, S.K., Nandi, A.: Astron. Astrophys. 520, A98 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201014990 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Debnath, D., Chakrabarti, S.K., Nandi, A.: Adv. Space Res. 52, 2143–2155 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.09.002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Debnath, D., Molla, A.A., Chakrabarti, S.K., Mondal, S.: Astrophys. J. 803, 59 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/803/2/59 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dutta, B.G.: In: Das, S., Nandi, A., Chattopadhyay, I. (eds.) Astronomical Society of India Conference Series, vol. 8, pp. 41–44 (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dutta, B.G., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 2136–2142 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16428.x ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dutta, B.G., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Astrophys. J. 828, 101 (2016). https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/828/2/101 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dutta, B.G., Chakrabarti, S.K., Pal, P.S.: In: Chakrabarti, S.K., Majumdar, A.S. (eds.) American Institute of Physics Conference Series, vol. 1053, pp. 165–170 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3009476
  21. 21.
    Dutta, B.G., Belloni, T., Motta, S.: Astronomical Society of India Conference Series, vol. 9 (2013)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dutta, B.G., Sarathi Pal, P., Chakrabarti, S.K.: In: Astronomical Society of India Conference Series, vol. 12 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dutta, B.G., Pal, P.S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 479, 2183-2192 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty1572 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garain, S.K., Ghosh, H., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 1329–1336 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt1969 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghosh, H., Garain, S.K., Giri, K., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 416, 959–971 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19090.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haardt, F., Maraschi, L.: Astrophys. J. 413, 507–517 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1086/173020 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Heil, L.M., Uttley, P., Klein-Wolt, M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 448, 3348–3353 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv240 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ingram, A., van der Klis, M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 446, 3516–3525 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stu2373 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ingram, A., Done, C., Fragile, P.C.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 397, L101–L105 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3933.2009.00693.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Iyer, N., Nandi, A., Mandal, S.: Astrophys. J. 807, 108 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/108 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lightman, A.P., Eardley, D.M.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 187, L1 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1086/181377 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Markwardt, C.B., Swank, J.H., Taam, R.E.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 513, L37–L40 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1086/311899 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Martocchia, A., Matt, G.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 282, L53–L57 (1996).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/282.4.L53 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McClintock, J.E., Remillard, R.A.: Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 44, 49-92 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.astro.44.051905.092532 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miniutti, G., Fabian, A.C.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 349, 1435–1448 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07611.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Molla, A.A., Debnath, D., Chakrabarti, S.K., Mondal, S., Jana, A.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 460, 3163–3169 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw860 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Molla, A.A., Chakrabarti, S.K., Debnath, D., Mondal, S.: Astrophys. J. 834, 88 (2017). https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/834/1/88 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Molteni, D., Sponholz, H., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Astrophys. J. 457, 805 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1086/176775 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mondal, S., Debnath, D., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Astrophys. J. 786, 4 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/4 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mondal, S., Chakrabarti, S.K., Debnath, D.: Astrophys. J. 798, 57 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/798/1/57 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Motta, S.E., Casella, P., Henze, M., Muñoz-Darias, T., Sanna, A., Fender, R., Belloni, T.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 447, 2059–2072 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stu2579 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Muno, M.P., Remillard, R.A., Morgan, E.H., Waltman, E.B., Dhawan, V., Hjellming, R.M., Pooley, G.: Astrophys. J. 556, 515–532 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1086/321604 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Muñoz-Darias, T., Coriat, M., Plant, D.S., Ponti, G., Fender, R.P., Dunn, R.J.H.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 1330–1337 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt546 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nandi, A., Debnath, D., Mandal, S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Astron. Astrophys. 542, A56 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201117844 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Orosz, J.A., Steiner, J.F., McClintock, J.E., Torres, M.A.P., Remillard, R.A., Bailyn, C.D., Miller, J.M.: Astrophys. J. 730, 75 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/730/2/75 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pal, P.S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 440, 672–682 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stu319 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pal, P.S., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Adv. Space Res. 56, 1784–1792 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.07.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pal, P.S., Chakrabarti, S.K., Nandi, A.: Adv. Space Res. 52, 740–759 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.04.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pottschmidt, K., Chernyakova, M., Zdziarski, A.A., Lubiński, P., Smith, D.M., Bezayiff, N.: Astron. Astrophys. 452, 285–294 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20054077 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rao, A.R., Naik, S., Vadawale, S.V., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Astron. Astrophys. 360, L25–L29 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Reig, P., Belloni, T., van der Klis, M., Méndez, M., Kylafis, N.D., Ford, E.C.: Astrophys. J. 541, 883–888 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1086/309469 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ryu, D., Chakrabarti, S.K., Molteni, D.: Astrophys. J. 474, 378–388 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1086/303461 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schnittman, J.D., Homan, J., Miller, J.M.: Astrophys. J. 642, 420–426 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1086/500923 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shakura, N.I., Sunyaev, R.A.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 175, 613–632 (1976).  https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/175.3.613 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smith, D.M., Heindl, W.A., Swank, J.H.: Astrophys. J. 569, 362–380 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1086/339167 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Smith, D.M., Dawson, D.M., Swank, J.H.: Astrophys. J. 669, 1138–1142 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1086/521822 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Stella, L., Vietri, M.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 17–20 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.17 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stella, L., Vietri, M., Morsink, S.M.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 524, L63–L66 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1086/312291 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tagger, M., Pellat, R.: Astron. Astrophys. 349, 1003–1016 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vadawale, S.V., Rao, A.R., Chakrabarti, S.K.: Astron. Astrophys. 372, 793–802 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20010574 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    van der Klis, M., Hasinger, G., Stella, L., Langmeier, A., van Paradijs, J., Lewin, W.H.G.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 319, L13–L18 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1086/184946 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wu, K., Soria, R., Campbell-Wilson, D., Hannikainen, D., Harmon, B.A., Hunstead, R., Johnston, H., McCollough, M., McIntyre, V.: Astrophys. J. 565, 1161–1168 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1086/324328 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zdziarski, A.A., Lubiński, P., Gilfanov, M., Revnivtsev, M.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 342, 355–372 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06556.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Broja Gopal Dutta
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsRishi Bankim Chandra CollegeNaihatiIndia
  2. 2.Indian Centre for Space PhysicsKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations