Advertisement

The Effects of Parenting on Emotion and Self-Regulation

  • Sabine Baker
Chapter

Abstract

The capacity to regulate one’s own arousal, attention, emotion, and cognition to manage goal-directed behaviors is a crucial skill that impacts on almost every area of one’s life. The development of such self-regulatory skills during childhood is considered an early indicator for later life successes, as effective self-regulation is predictive of a multitude of short and long-term outcomes including school-readiness, relationships with peers and family, academic achievement, feelings of higher self-worth, ability to cope with stress, less substance abuse and law breaking, and better mental health. Children’s self-regulatory capacities are greatly influenced by environmental experiences, such as the quality of parenting they receive. This chapter considers ways in which parenting facilitates self-regulation in children. Following a brief overview of the normative development of self-regulation during childhood, the chapter specifically examines the impact of parenting on the development of children’s executive functions, effortful control, compliance, and emotion regulation. A range of classic theoretical models are reviewed and empirical studies showcased. As self-regulation is a broad and multidimensional construct, the chapter also discusses some of the related conceptual and methodological issues.

Keywords

Self-regulation Emotion regulation Parenting Executive functions 

Notes

Disclosure

The Parenting and Family Support Centre is partly funded by royalties stemming from published resources of the Triple P—Positive Parenting Program, which is developed and owned by the University of Queensland (UQ). Royalties are also distributed to the Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences at UQ and contributory authors of published Triple P resources. Triple P International (TPI) Pty Ltd. is a private company licensed by UniQuest Pty Ltd. on behalf of UQ, to publish and disseminate Triple P worldwide. The author of this chapter is an employee at UQ and has no share or ownership of TPI.

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Bater, L. R., & Jordan, S. S. (2017). Child routines and self-regulation serially mediate parenting practices and externalizing problems in preschool children. Child & Youth Care Forum, 46(2), 243–259.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-016-9377-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumeister, R. F. (2004). Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Belsky, J. (2013). Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 7(2), 15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/2288-6729-7-2-15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belsky, J., Pasco Fearon, R. M., & Bell, B. (2007). Parenting, attention and externalizing problems: Testing mediation longitudinally, repeatedly and reciprocally. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48(12), 1233–1242.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01807.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernard, K., Dozier, M., Bick, J., Lewis-Morrarty, E., Lindhiem, O., & Carlson, E. (2012). Enhancing attachment organization among maltreated children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Child Development, 83(2), 623–636.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01712.xCrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., & Whipple, N. (2010). From external regulation to self-regulation: Early parenting precursors of young children’s executive functioning. Child Development, 81(1), 326–339.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01397.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bindman, S. W., Hindman, A. H., Bowles, R. P., & Morrison, F. J. (2013). The contributions of parental management language to executive function in preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(3), 529–539.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.03.003CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Birmingham, R. S., Bub, K. L., & Vaughn, B. E. (2017). Parenting in infancy and self-regulation in preschool: An investigation of the role of attachment history. Attachment & Human Development, 19(2), 107–129.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2016.1259335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blair, C., & Diamond, A. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 899–911.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000436CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blair, C., Raver, C. C., Berry, D. J., & Family Life Project, I. (2014). Two approaches to estimating the effect of parenting on the development of executive function in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 50(2), 554–565.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. (1996). Tools of the mind: The Vygotskian approach to early childhood education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.Google Scholar
  13. Bozicevic, L., De Pascalis, L., Schuitmaker, N., Tomlinson, M., Cooper, P. J., & Murray, L. (2016). Longitudinal association between child emotion regulation and aggression, and the role of parenting: A comparison of three cultures. Psychopathology, 49(4), 228–235.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000447747CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bridgett, D. J., Burt, N. M., Edwards, E. S., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of self-regulation: A multidisciplinary review and integrative conceptual framework. Psychological Bulletin, 141(3), 602–654.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038662CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bridgett, D. J., Oddi, K. B., Laake, L. M., Murdock, K. W., & Bachmann, M. N. (2013). Integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation: Effortful control, executive functioning, and links to negative affectivity. Emotion, 13(1), 47–63.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Calkins, S. D. (2007). The emergence of self-regulation: Biological and behavioral control mechanisms supporting toddler competencies. Socioemotional development in the toddler years: Transitions and transformations (pp. 261–284). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  17. Calkins, S. D., Smith, C. L., Gill, K. L., & Johnson, M. C. (1998). Maternal interactive style across contexts: Relations to emotional, behavioral and physiological regulation during toddlerhood. Social Development, 7(3), 350–369.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carlson, S. M. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 595–616.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326942dn2802_3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carlson, S. M., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014). Minnesota executive function scale: Test manual. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Chan, R. C., Shum, D., Toulopoulou, T., & Chen, E. Y. (2008). Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23(2), 201–216.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2007.08.010CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark, C. A., Sheffield, T. D., Chevalier, N., Nelson, J. M., Wiebe, S. A., & Espy, K. A. (2013). Charting early trajectories of executive control with the shape school. Developmental Psychology, 49(8), 1481–1493.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030578CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cole, P. M., Dennis, T. A., Smith-Simon, K. E., & Cohen, L. H. (2009). Preschoolers’ emotion regulation strategy understanding: Relations with emotion socialization and child self-regulation. Social Development, 18(2), 324–352.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00503.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Colman, R. A., Hardy, S. A., Albert, M., Raffaelli, M., & Crockett, L. (2006). Early predictors of self-regulation in middle childhood. Infant and Child Development, 15(4), 421–437.  https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Criss, M. M., Morris, A. S., Ponce-Garcia, E., Cui, L. X., & Silk, J. S. (2016). Pathways to adaptive emotion regulation among adolescents from low-income families. Family Relations, 65(3), 517–529.  https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crockenberg, S., & Litman, C. (1990). Autonomy as competence in 2-year-olds - Maternal correlates of child defiance, compliance, and self-assertion. Developmental Psychology, 26(6), 961–971.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.26.6.961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crockenberg, S. C., & Leerkes, E. M. (2006). Infant and maternal behavior moderate reactivity to novelty to predict anxious behavior at 2.5 years. Development and Psychopathology, 18(1), 17–34.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579406060020CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cui, L., Morris, A. S., Criss, M. M., Houltberg, B. J., & Silk, J. S. (2014). Parental psychological control and adolescent adjustment: The role of adolescent emotion regulation. Parenting, Science and Practice, 14(1), 47–67.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2014.880018CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and child adjustment: An emotional security hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 387–411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Deater-Deckard, K., Sewell, M. D., Petrill, S. A., & Thompson, L. A. (2010). Maternal working memory and reactive negativity in parenting. Psychological Science, 21(1), 75–79.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797609354073CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333(6045), 959–964.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1204529CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Domitrovich, C. E., Cortes, R. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2007). Improving young children’s social and emotional competence: A randomized trial of the preschool “PATHS” curriculum. Journal of Primary Prevention, 28(2), 67–91.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-007-0081-0CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lewis, E., Laurenceau, J. P., & Levine, S. (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention on the cortisol production of infants and toddlers in foster care. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 845–859.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000400CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 241–273.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 495–525.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131208CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Eisenberg, N., Taylor, Z. E., Widaman, K. F., & Spinrad, T. L. (2015). Externalizing symptoms, effortful control, and intrusive parenting: A test of bidirectional longitudinal relations during early childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 27(4 Pt 1), 953–968.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579415000620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Liew, J., Zhou, Q., Losoya, S. H., … Cumberland, A. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children’s effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 988–1008.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016213CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children’s effortful control, and externalizing problems: A three-wave longitudinal study. Child Development, 76(5), 1055–1071.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00897.xCrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ellefson, M. R., Ng, F. F., Wang, Q., & Hughes, C. (2017). Efficiency of Executive function: A two-generation cross-cultural comparison of samples from Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. Psychological Science, 28(5), 555–566.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797616687812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fabes, R. A., Leonard, S. A., Kupanoff, K., & Martin, C. L. (2001). Parental coping with children’s negative emotions: Relations with children’s emotional and social responding. Child Development, 72(3), 907–920.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Falk, A., & Heckman, J. J. (2009). Lab experiments are a major source of knowledge in the social sciences. Science, 326(5952), 535–538.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1168244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fay-Stammbach, T., Hawes, D. J., & Meredith, P. (2014). Parenting influences on executive function in early childhood: A review. Child Development Perspectives, 8(4), 258–264.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fields, M. A., Cole, P. M., & Maggi, M. C. (2017). Toddler emotional states, temperamental traits, and their interaction: Associations with mothers’ and fathers’ parenting. Journal of Research in Personality, 67, 106–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2016.05.007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fineberg, N. A., Chamberlain, S. R., Goudriaan, A. E., Stein, D. J., Vanderschuren, L. J., Gillan, C. M., … Potenza, M. N. (2014). New developments in human neurocognition: Clinical, genetic, and brain imaging correlates of impulsivity and compulsivity. CNS Spectrums, 19(1), 69–89.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852913000801CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fishbein, D. H., Domitrovich, C., Williams, J., Gitukui, S., Guthrie, C., Shapiro, D., & Greenberg, M. (2016). Short-term intervention effects of the paths curriculum in young low-income children: Capitalizing on plasticity. Journal of Primary Prevention, 37(6), 493–511.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-016-0452-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fox, N. A. (1994). Dynamic cerebral processes underlying emotion regulation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2-3), 152–166.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01282.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (2003). The development of self-control of emotion: Intrinsic and extrinsic influences. Motivation and Emotion, 27(1), 7–26.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023622324898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Graignic-Philippe, R., Dayan, J., Chokron, S., Jacquet, A. Y., & Tordjman, S. (2014). Effects of prenatal stress on fetal and child development: A critical literature review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 137–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.03.022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Graziano, P. A., & Hart, K. (2016). Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems. Journal of School Psychology, 58, 91–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2016.07.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Graziano, P. A., Keane, S. P., & Calkins, S. D. (2010). Maternal behavior and children’s early emotion regulation skills differentially predict development of children’s reactive control and later effortful control. Infant Child Development, 19(4), 333–353.  https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.670CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Grolnick, W. S., & Farkas, M. (2002). Parenting and the development of children’s self-regulation. Handbook of parenting: Practical issues in parenting (Vol. 5, 2nd ed., pp. 89–110). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  51. Hammond, S. I., Muller, U., Carpendale, J. I., Bibok, M. B., & Liebermann-Finestone, D. P. (2012). The effects of parental scaffolding on preschoolers’ executive function. Developmental Psychology, 48(1), 271–281.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hardaway, C. R., Wilson, M. N., Shaw, D. S., & Dishion, T. J. (2012). Family functioning and externalizing behaviour among low-income children: self-regulation as a mediator. Infant Child Development, 21(1), 67–84.  https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Harmeyer, E., Ispa, J. M., Palermo, F., & Carlo, G. (2016). Predicting self-regulation and vocabulary and academic skills at kindergarten entry: The roles of maternal parenting stress and mother-child closeness. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 37(Suppl C), 153–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.05.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Havighurst, S. S., Wilson, K. R., Harley, A. E., Prior, M. R., & Kehoe, C. (2010). Tuning in to Kids: Improving emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children-findings from a community trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 51(12), 1342–1350.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02303.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Holodynski, M. (2004). The miniaturization of expression in the development of emotional self-regulation. Developmental Psychology, 40(1), 16–28.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.1.16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Holodynski, M. (2009). Milestones and mechanisms of emotional development. In H. J. Markowitsch & B. Röttger-Rössler (Eds.), Emotions as bio-cultural processes (pp. 139–163). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Holzman, J. B., & Bridgett, D. J. (2017). Heart rate variability indices as bio-markers of top-down self-regulatory mechanisms: A meta-analytic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 74(Pt A), 233–255.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.12.032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jaramillo, J. M., Rendon, M. I., Munoz, L., Weis, M., & Trommsdorff, G. (2017). Children’s self-regulation in cultural contexts: The role of parental socialization theories, goals, and practices. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 923.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00923CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1301–1333.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Johnson, A. M., Hawes, D. J., Eisenberg, N., Kohlhoff, J., & Dudeney, J. (2017). Emotion socialization and child conduct problems: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 54(Suppl C), 65–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2017.04.001CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Karreman, A., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A. G., & Dekovic, M. (2006). Parenting and self-regulation in preschoolers: A meta-analysis. Infant and Child Development, 15(6), 561–579.  https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaunhoven, R. J., & Dorjee, D. (2017). How does mindfulness modulate self-regulation in pre-adolescent children? An integrative neurocognitive review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 74(Pt A), 163–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.01.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim, S., & Kochanska, G. (2012). Child temperament moderates effects of parent-child mutuality on self-regulation: A relationship-based path for emotionally negative infants. Child Development, 83(4), 1275–1289.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01778.xCrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. King, K. M., Lengua, L. J., & Monahan, K. C. (2013). Individual differences in the development of self-regulation during pre-adolescence: Connections to context and adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(1), 57–69.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9665-0CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Klinnert, M. D., Campos, J. J., Sorce, J. F., Emde, R. N., & Svejda, M. (1983). Emotions as behavior regulators: Social referencing in infancy. In Emotions in early development (pp. 57–86). New York, NY: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kochanska, G., & Aksan, N. (1995). Mother-child mutually positive affect, the quality of child compliance to requests and prohibitions, and maternal control as correlates of early internalization. Child Development, 66(1), 236–254.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1131203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72(4), 1091–1111.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation - A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 199–214.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.18.2.199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., & Miller-Loncar, C. L. (2000). Early maternal and child influences on children’s later independent cognitive and social functioning. Child Development, 71(2), 358–375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. LeCuyer, E. A., & Zhang, Y. (2015). An integrative review of ethnic and cultural variation in socialization and children’s self-regulation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 71(4), 735–750.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12526CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lee, E. H., Zhou, Q., Eisenberg, N., & Wang, Y. (2013). Bidirectional relations between temperament and parenting styles in Chinese children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37(1), 57–67.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025412460795CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lengua, L. J., Honorado, E., & Bush, N. R. (2007). Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28(1), 40–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.10.001CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lewis-Morrarty, E., Dozier, M., Bernard, K., Terracciano, S. M., & Moore, S. V. (2012). Cognitive flexibility and theory of mind outcomes among foster children: Preschool follow-up results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(2 Suppl), S17–S22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.05.005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 491–495.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579410000222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mathis, E. T., & Bierman, K. L. (2015). Dimensions of parenting associated with child prekindergarten emotion regulation and attention control in low-income families. Social Development, 24(3), 601–620.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. McClelland, M. M., Acock, A. C., & Morrison, F. J. (2006). The impact of kindergarten learning-related skills on academic trajectories at the end of elementary school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21(4), 471–490.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McClelland, M. M., & Cameron, C. E. (2012). Self-regulation in early childhood: Improving conceptual clarity and developing ecologically valid measures. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 136–142.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00191.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McClelland, M. M., Cameron, C. E., Wanless, S. B., Murray, A., Saracho, O., & Spodek, B. (2007). Executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and social-emotional competence. Contemporary Perspectives on Social Learning in Early Childhood Education, 1, 113–137.Google Scholar
  79. McClelland, M. M., Ponitz, C. C., Messersmith, E. E., & Tominey, S. (2010). Self-regulation. The handbook of life-span development. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  80. Meldrum, R. C., Trucco, E. M., Cope, L. M., Zucker, R. A., & Heitzeg, M. M. (2018). Brain activity, low self-control, and delinquency: An fMRI study of at-risk adolescents. Journal of Criminal Justice, 56, 107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.07.007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mermelshtine, R. (2017). Parent-child learning interactions: A review of the literature on scaffolding. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(2), 241–254.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mezzacappa, E., Buckner, J. C., & Earls, F. (2011). Prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation as predictors of cognitive control in childhood. Developmental Science, 14(4), 881–891.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01038.xCrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Miner, J. L., & Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (2008). Trajectories of externalizing behavior from age 2 to age 9: Relations with gender, temperament, ethnicity, parenting, and rater. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 771–786.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., … Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 108(7), 2693–2698.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1010076108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Montroy, J. J., Bowles, R. P., Skibbe, L. E., McClelland, M. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2016). The development of self-regulation across early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 52(11), 1744–1762.  https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000159CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Morris, A. S., & Age, T. R. (2009). Adjustment among youth in military families: The protective roles of effortful control and maternal social support. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(6), 695–707.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2009.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morris, A. S., Criss, M. M., Silk, J. S., & Houltberg, B. J. (2017). The Impact of Parenting on emotion regulation during childhood and adolescence. Child Development Perspectives, 11(4), 233–238.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Morris, M. D., Steinberg, L., Aucoin, K. J., & Keyes, A. W. (2011). The influence of mother-child emotion regulation strategies on children’s expression of anger and sadness. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 213–225.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation. Social Development, 16(2), 361–388.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00389.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Nigg, J. T. (2017). Annual research review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 58(4), 361–383.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12675CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Nigg, J. T., Silk, K. R., Stavro, G., & Miller, T. (2005). Disinhibition and borderline personality disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 17(4), 1129–1149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., & Bayles, K. (1990). Early antecedents of childhood impulsivity: The role of parent-child interaction, cognitive competence, and temperament. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18(3), 317–334.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pears, K. C., Kim, H. K., Healey, C. V., Yoerger, K., & Fisher, P. A. (2015). Improving child self-regulation and parenting in families of pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities and behavioral difficulties. Prevention Science, 16(2), 222–232.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-014-0482-2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Perry, N. B., Calkins, S. D., Dollar, J. M., Keane, S. P., & Shanahan, L. (2018). Self-regulation as a predictor of patterns of change in externalizing behaviors from infancy to adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 497–510.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579417000992CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Poldrack, R. A., Baker, C. I., Durnez, J., Gorgolewski, K. J., Matthews, P. M., Munafo, M. R., … Yarkoni, T. (2017). Scanning the horizon: Towards transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 18(2), 115–126.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2016.167CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. S., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 605–619.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ponitz, C. E. C., McClelland, M. M., Jewkes, A. M., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., & Morrison, F. J. (2008). Touch your toes! Developing a direct measure of behavioral regulation in early childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(2), 141–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.01.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A., & Maiti, A. K. (1994). Vagal tone and the physiological regulation of emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2-3), 167–186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Posner, M. I., Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., & Voelker, P. (2014). Developing attention: Behavioral and brain mechanisms. Advances in Neuroscience (Hindawi), 2014, 405094.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/405094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Prinz, R. J., Sanders, M. R., Shapiro, C. J., Whitaker, D. J., & Lutzker, J. R. (2009). Population-based prevention of child maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P system population trial. Prevention Science, 10(1), 1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-009-0123-3CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Razza, R. A., Martin, A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Anger and children’s socioemotional development: Can parenting elicit a positive side to a negative emotion? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21(5), 845–856.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-011-9545-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Riggs, N. R., Greenberg, M. T., Kusche, C. A., & Pentz, M. A. (2006). The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS Curriculum. Prevention Science, 7(1), 91–102.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-005-0022-1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Riva Crugnola, C., Ierardi, E., Ferro, V., Gallucci, M., Parodi, C., & Astengo, M. (2016). Mother-infant emotion regulation at three months: The role of maternal anxiety, depression and parenting stress. Psychopathology, 49(4), 285–294.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000446811CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Temperament, development, and personality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(4), 207–212.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00505.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation in early life. Emotion Review, 3(2), 207–213.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073910387943CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Salmon, K., Dittman, C., Sanders, M., Burson, R., & Hammington, J. (2014). Does adding an emotion component enhance the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program? Journal of Family Psychology, 28(2), 244–252.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035997CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanders, M., & Mazzucchelli, T. (2013). The promotion of self-regulation through parenting interventions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 16(1), 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-013-0129-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sanders, M. R. (2008). Triple P-Positive Parenting Program as a public health approach to strengthening parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 506–517.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.3.506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Scaramella, L. V., & Leve, L. D. (2004). Clarifying parent-child reciprocities during early childhood: The early childhood coercion model. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7(2), 89–107.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:CCFP.0000030287.13160.a3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schatz, J. N., Smith, L. E., Borkowski, J. G., Whitman, T. L., & Keogh, D. A. (2008). Maltreatment risk, self-regulation, and maladjustment in at-risk children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(10), 972–982.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.09.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shuai, L., Daley, D., Wang, Y. F., Zhang, J. S., Kong, Y. T., Tan, X., & Ji, N. (2017). Executive function training for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl), 130(5), 549–558.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.200541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Silverman, I. W., & Ragusa, D. M. (1990). Child and maternal correlates of impulse control in 24-month-old children. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 116(4), 435–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Gaertner, B., Popp, T., Smith, C. L., Kupfer, A., … Hofer, C. (2007). Relations of maternal socialization and toddlers’ effortful control to children’s adjustment and social competence. Developmental Psychology, 43(5), 1170–1186.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.5.1170CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Spruijt, A. M., Dekker, M. C., Ziermans, T. B., & Swaab, H. (2018). Attentional control and executive functioning in school-aged children: Linking self-regulation and parenting strategies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 166(Suppl C), 340–359.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.09.004CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Emotional development: The organization of emotional life in the early years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Stack, D. M., Serbin, L. A., Enns, L. N., Ruttle, P. L., & Barrieau, L. (2010). Parental effects on children’s emotional development over time and across generations. Infants and Young Children, 23(1), 52–69.  https://doi.org/10.1097/IYC.0b013e3181c97606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2-3), 25–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Trentacosta, C. J., & Shaw, D. S. (2009). Emotional self-regulation, peer rejection, and antisocial behavior: Developmental associations from early childhood to early adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 356–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.016CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Tseng, W. L., Guyer, A. E., Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Axelson, D., Birmaher, B., Egger, H. L., … Brotman, M. A. (2015). Behavior and emotion modulation deficits in preschoolers at risk for bipolar disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 32(5), 325–334.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22342CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Vazsonyi, A. T., & Huang, L. (2010). Where self-control comes from: On the development of self-control and its relationship to deviance over time. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 245–257.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016538CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wang, F. L., Chassin, L., Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2015). Effortful control predicts adolescent antisocial-aggressive behaviors and depressive symptoms: Co-occurrence and moderation by impulsivity. Child Development, 86(6), 1812–1829.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12406CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Weber, R. C. (2012). How hot or cool is it to speak two languages: Executive function advantages in bilingual children. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University.Google Scholar
  124. White, B. A., Jarrett, M. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2012). Self-regulation deficits explain the link between reactive aggression and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(1), 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9310-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Williams, K. E., & Berthelsen, D. (2017). The development of prosocial behaviour in early childhood: Contributions of early parenting and self-regulation. International Journal of Early Childhood, 49(1), 73–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-017-0185-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Woltering, S., & Shi, Q. X. (2016). On the neuroscience of self-regulation in children with disruptive behavior problems: Implications for education. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 1085–1110.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316673722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 17(2), 89–100.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zeman, J., Cassano, M., Perry-Parrish, C., & Stegall, S. (2006). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(2), 155–168.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004703-200604000-00014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zhou, Q., Chen, S. H., & Main, A. (2012). Commonalities and differences in the research on children’s effortful control and executive function: A call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 112–121.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00176.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Webb, H. J., Pepping, C. A., Swan, K., Merlo, O., Skinner, E. A., … Dunbar, M. (2017). Review: Is parent–child attachment a correlate of children’s emotion regulation and coping? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 41(1), 74–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Zucker, R. A., Heitzeg, M. M., & Nigg, J. T. (2011). Parsing the undercontrol/disinhibition pathway to substance use disorders: A multilevel developmental problem. Child Developmental Perspectives, 5(4), 248–255.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00172.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations